Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds
of Red Clover


Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, beetle activity is unspecified, while hummingbirds & other insects suck nectar; short-tongued bees, butterflies, skippers, & moths are non-pollinating according to Robertson; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Reed, Graenicher, Lewis, Macior, Fothergill & Vaughn, Swengel & Swengel, Lisberg & Young, Smith et al., and Williams as indicated below)

Birds
Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris (Rb, Gr)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn (Rb, Mc), Bombus bimaculatus sn (Rb, Re), Bombus fervida sn fq (Mc), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn cp fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus impatiens sn (Rb, Mc), Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus vagans sn cp (Rb, Mc), Psithyrus citrinus sn, Psithyrus variabilis sn fq; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn, Anthophora ursina sn cp, Anthophora walshii sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn, Melissodes communis communis (Smh), Svastra petulca (Smh), Synhalonia speciosa sn cp fq; Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Anthidium psoraleae sn cp fq; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn, Osmia cordata sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus rubicunda cp; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis cp

Flies
Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Agraulis vanillae (FV), Danaus plexippus, Speyeria cybele, Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa cardui (Rb, Re), Vanessa virginiensis fq; Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas, Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Sw); Papilionidae: Battus philenor, Papilio cresphontes, Papilio marcellus, Papilio polyxenes asterias; Pieridae: Colias philodice (Rb, FV), Eureme nicippe, Phoebis sennae, Pieris rapae (Rb, Lw), Pontia protodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus fq, Polites peckius, Polites themistocles, Thorybes pylades

Moths
Sphingidae: Hemaris diffinis

Beetles
Cantharidae:
Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Wms); Mordellidae: Mordella marginata (LY)


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