Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds
of Red Clover


Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, beetle activity is unspecified, while hummingbirds & other insects suck nectar; short-tongued bees, butterflies, skippers, & moths are non-pollinating according to Robertson; observations are from Robertson, Reed, Graenicher, Lewis, Macior, Fothergill & Vaughn, Swengel & Swengel, Lisberg & Young, Smith et al., Williams, Verne, Voss, and Wilhelm & Rericha as indicated below)

Birds
Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (Rb, Gr)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera (WR); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn (Rb, Mc, WR), Bombus bimaculatus sn (Rb, Re, WR), Bombus fervidus sn fq (Mc, WR), Bombus fraternus sn (Rb), Bombus griseocallis sn cp fq (Rb, Mc, WR), Bombus impatiens sn (Rb, Mc, WR), Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus vagans sn cp (Rb, Mc), Psithyrus citrinus sn (Rb), Psithyrus variabilis sn fq (Rb); Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn (Rb), Anthophora ursina sn cp (Rb), Anthophora walshii sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn (Rb), Melissodes communis communis (Smh), Svastra petulca (Smh), Synhalonia speciosa sn cp fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Anthidium psoraleae sn cp fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp (Rb); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn (Rb), Osmia atriventris (WR), Osmia cordata sn cp (Rb)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus rubicundus cp (Rb), Lasioglossum coriaceum (WR); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena wilkella (WR);
Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis cp (Rb)

Flies
Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn (Rb)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Agraulis vanillae sn (FV), Danaus plexippus sn (Rb), Speyeria spp. sn (V), Speyeria cybele sn (Rb, V), Vanessa atalanta sn (Rb), Vanessa cardui sn (Rb, Re), Vanessa virginiensis sn fq (Rb); Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas sn (Rb), Lycaeides melissa samuelis sn (Sw); Papilionidae: Battus philenor sn (Rb), Papilio cresphontes sn (Rb), Papilio marcellus sn (Rb), Papilio polyxenes asterias sn (Rb); Pieridae: Colias philodice sn (Rb, FV), Eureme nicippe sn (Rb), Phoebis sennae sn (Rb), Pieris rapae sn (Rb, Lw), Pontia protodice sn (Rb)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Atalopedes campestris sn (WR), Epargyreus clarus sn fq (Rb), Hesperia comma laurentina sn (V), Polites peckius sn (Rb, WR), Polites themistocles sn (Rb, V), Thorybes pylades sn (Rb, V)

Moths
Sphingidae: Hemaris diffinis sn (Rb, Vn), Hemaris thysbe sn (Vn), Hyles lineata sn (Vn)

Beetles
Cantharidae:
Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Wms); Mordellidae: Mordella marginata (LY)


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