Flower-Visiting Insects
of Hoary Vervain


Verbena stricta (Hoary Vervain)
(Bees usually suck nectar, but sometimes collect pollen; beetle activity is unspecified; other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Reed, Hilty, Krombein et al., Tuell et al., and Williams as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Re, Tll); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis (Re), Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus bimaculatus sn, Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocollis sn (Rb, Re), Bombus impatiens sn fq (Rb, Tll), Bombus pensylvanicus sn, Bombus vagans sn, Psithyrus citrinus sn, Psithyrus variabilis sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata sn, Ceratina calcarata/dupla (Tll), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Triepeolus concavus sn fq, Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn fq, Triepeolus donatus sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq, Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn fq, Triepeolus nevadensis sn, Triepeolus remigatus sn fq, Triepeolus simplex sn fq; Anthophoridae (Emphorini): Ptilothrix bombiformis sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Anthedonia compta sn, Florilegus condigna sn cp fq, Melissodes agilis sn fq (Rb, Re), Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn fq icp (Rb, Tll), Melissodes coloradensis sn, Melissodes communis sn fq, Melissodes comptoides sn fq, Melissodes coreopsis sn, Melissodes denticulata sn fq icp, Melissodes rustica sn, Melissodes tepaneca sn, Melissodes trinodis sn, Peponapis pruinosa pruinosa sn, Svastra atripes atripes sn fq, Svastra obliqua obliqua sn fq, Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn, Nomada texana sn; Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn; Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Anthidiellum notatum boreale sn, Anthidium psoraleae sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys alternata alternata sn fq, Coelioxys germana sn, Coelioxys modesta sn fq, Coelioxys octodentata sn, Coelioxys sayi sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn fq, Megachile campanulae campanulae sn fq, Megachile inimica sayi sn fq, Megachile latimanus sn fq, Megachile mendica sn fq, Megachile parallela parallela sn, Megachile petulans sn fq, Megachile rugifrons sn, Megachile texana sn fq; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Ashmeadiella bucconis sn, Hoplitis pilosifrons sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae):Agapostemon sericea sn fq, Agapostemon splendens sn, Agapostemon texanus texanus sn, Agapostemon virescens sn fq, Augochlorella aurata sn, Augochlorella striata sn (Rb, Re), Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicundus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes minor sn; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn, Calliopsis nebraskensis (Kr), Calliopsis verbenae sn cp fq icp olg

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans, Ammophila procera fq; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta

Flies
Syrphidae (Sphecinae): Eristalis tenax, Pseudodoros clavatus; Nemestrinidae: Neorhynchocephalus sackenii fq; Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps, Exoprosopa fasciata fq, Exoprosopa fascipennis, Rhynchanthrax parvicornis fq, Systoechus vulgaris fq; Conopidae: Physocephala texana, Physocephala tibialis, Stylogaster biannulata fq, Stylogaster neglecta, Zodion fulvifrons, Zodion obliquefasciatum

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus, Euptoieta claudia, Phyciodes tharos, Speyeria cybele, Vanessa cardui (Re); Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus, Everes comyntas, Strymon melinus; Pieridae: Colias sp. (Re), Colias philodice, Eurema lisa, Phoebis sennae, Pieris rapae fq (Rb, H), Pontia protodice; Papilionidae: Battus philenor, Papilio marcellus, Papilio troilus

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Anatrytone logan fq (Rb, Re), Ancyloxypha numitor, Atalopedes campestris, Epargyreus clarus fq, Erynnis baptisiae, Erynnis juvenalis, Erynnis martialis, Pholisora catullus, Polites peckius, Polites themistocles fq, Staphylus hayhurstii fq, Thorybes bathyllus

Moths
Sphingidae: Hemaris diffinis (Rb, Re)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Re, Wms)


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