Flower-Visiting Insects
and Birds
of Hoary Vervain

Verbena stricta (Hoary Vervain)
(Bees usually suck nectar and less often collect pollen, flies usually suck nectar and less often feed on pollen, the beetle feeds on nectar or pollen, other insects and the hummingbird suck nectar. Observations are from Robertson, Reed, Hilty, Krombein et al., Tuell et al., Williams, Voss, and Wilhelm & Rericha as indicated below.)

Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (WR)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apini): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Re, Tll, WR); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis (Re), Bombus auricomus sn (Rb), Bombus bimaculatus sn (Rb, WR), Bombus fraternus sn (Rb), Bombus griseocollis sn (Rb, Re), Bombus impatiens sn fq (Rb, Tll), Bombus pensylvanicus sn (Rb), Bombus vagans sn (Rb, WR), Psithyrus citrinus sn (Rb), Psithyrus variabilis sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata sn (Rb, WR), Ceratina calcarata/dupla (Tll), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Ceratina mikmaqi (WR), Ceratina strenua (WR); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn (Rb), Triepeolus concavus sn fq (Rb), Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn fq (Rb), Triepeolus donatus sn (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn fq (Rb, WR), Triepeolus nevadensis sn (Rb), Triepeolus quadrifasciatus atlanticus sn (WR), Triepeolus remigatus sn fq (Rb), Triepeolus simplex sn fq (Rb); Anthophoridae (Emphorini): Ptilothrix bombiformis sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Anthedonia compta sn (Rb), Florilegus condignus sn cp fq (Rb), Melissodes agilis sn fq (Rb, Re, WR), Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn fq icp (Rb, Tll, WR), Melissodes coloradensis sn (Rb), Melissodes communis sn fq (Rb), Melissodes comptoides sn fq (Rb), Melissodes coreopsis sn (Rb), Melissodes denticulata sn fq icp (Rb), Melissodes rustica sn (Rb), Melissodes tepaneca sn (Rb), Melissodes trinodis sn (Rb, WR), Peponapis pruinosa pruinosa sn (Rb), Svastra atripes atripes sn fq (Rb), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn fq (Rb), Synhalonia speciosa sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn (Rb), Nomada texana sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Anthidiellum notatum boreale sn (Rb, WR), Anthidium psoraleae sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys alternata alternata sn fq (Rb), Coelioxys germana sn (Rb, WR), Coelioxys modesta sn fq (Rb, WR), Coelioxys octodentata sn (Rb, WR), Coelioxys rufitarsis sn (WR), Coelioxys sayi sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn fq (Rb), Megachile campanulae campanulae sn fq (Rb), Megachile frugalis (WR), Megachile inimica sayi sn fq (Rb, WR), Megachile latimanus sn fq (Rb), Megachile mendica sn fq (Rb, WR), Megachile montivaga (WR), Megachile parallela parallela sn (Rb), Megachile petulans sn fq (Rb, WR), Megachile pugnata (WR), Megachile rotundata sn (WR), Megachile rugifrons sn (Rb, WR), Megachile texana sn fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Ashmeadiella bucconis sn (Rb), Hoplitis pilosifrons sn cp (Rb), Osmia texana sn (WR)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae):Agapostemon sericeus sn fq (Rb), Agapostemon splendens sn (Rb, WR), Agapostemon texanus texanus sn (Rb), Agapostemon virescens sn fq (Rb), Augochlorella aurata sn (Rb, WR), Augochlorella striata sn (Rb, Re), Halictus ligatus sn (Rb), Halictus rubicundus sn (Rb), Lasioglossum anomalum (WR), Lasioglossum imitatum (WR); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes minor sn (Rb); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus illinoisensis (WR); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn (Rb), Calliopsis nebraskensis cp olg (Kr, WR), Calliopsis verbenae sn cp fq icp olg (Rb)

Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana sn (Rb); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi sn (Rb), Ammophila nigricans sn (Rb), Ammophila procera sn fq (Rb); Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecinctum sn (Rb)

Formicidae (Dolichoderinae): Dolichoderus mariae sn np (WR), Tapinoma sessile sn np (WR)

Syrphidae: Eristalis stipator (WR), Eristalis tenax (Rb), Pseudodoros clavatus (Rb), Toxomerus marginatus (WR); Nemestrinidae: Neorhynchocephalus sackenii fq (Rb); Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps sn (Rb), Exoprosopa fasciata sn fq (Rb, WR), Exoprosopa fascipennis sn (Rb), Geron vitripennis (WR), Rhynchanthrax parvicornis fq (Rb), Systoechus vulgaris sn fq (Rb, WR); Conopidae: Physocephala texana sn (Rb), Physocephala tibialis sn (Rb), Stylogaster biannulata sn fq (Rb), Stylogaster neglecta sn (Rb), Zodion fulvifrons sn (Rb), Zodion obliquefasciatum sn (Rb)

Nymphalidae: Cercyonis pegala sn (WR), Danaus plexippus sn (Rb), Euptoieta claudia sn (Rb), Phyciodes tharos sn (Rb), Speyeria cybele sn (Rb), Vanessa cardui (Re); Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus sn (Rb), Everes comyntas sn (Rb, WR), Strymon melinus sn (Rb); Pieridae: Colias sp. sn (Re), Colias philodice sn (Rb), Eurema lisa sn (Rb, WR), Phoebis sennae sn (Rb), Pieris rapae sn fq (Rb, H, V), Pontia protodice sn (Rb); Papilionidae: Battus philenor sn (Rb), Papilio marcellus sn (Rb), Papilio troilus sn (Rb)

Hesperiidae: Anatrytone logan sn fq (Rb, Re), Ancyloxypha numitor sn (Rb), Atalopedes campestris sn (Rb), Epargyreus clarus sn fq (Rb, WR), Erynnis baptisiae sn (Rb), Erynnis juvenalis sn (Rb), Erynnis martialis sn (Rb), Pholisora catullus sn (Rb), Polites peckius sn (Rb), Polites themistocles sn fq (Rb), Staphylus hayhurstii sn fq (Rb), Thorybes bathyllus sn (Rb)

Sphingidae: Hemaris diffinis sn (Rb, Re)

Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Re, Wms)