Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds
of Foxglove Penstemon

Penstemon digitalis (Foxglove Penstemon)
(Long-tongued bees suck nectar or pollen; short-tongued bees collect pollen; beetles & Syrphid flies feed on either pollen or stray pollen [fsp]; butterflies & moths suck nectar & are probably non-pollinating; some wasps and the Large Carpenter bee perforate the flowers [prf], suck nectar from perforated flowers [sn@prf], and are non-pollinating; the oligolectic Penstemon wasp sucks nectar and collects pollen; hummingbirds suck nectar; observations are from Robertson, Clinebell & Bernhardt, Crosswhite & Crosswhite, Hilty, and MacRae)

Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (Rb, H)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus bimaculatus sn fq (CB), Bombus fraternus sn fq (CB), Bombus griseocallis sn fq (CB), Bombus impatiens sn fq (Rb, CB), Bombus nevadensis sn fq (CB), Bombus pensylvanica sn (Rb, CB), Bombus vagans sn; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn cp fq, Anthophora terminalis sn cp fq (Rb, CB), Anthophora ursina sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina spp. cp fq (CB), Ceratina dupla dupla cp; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia hamata sn fq (CB), Synhalonia rosae sn fq, Synhalonia speciosa sn fq; Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica prf sn@prf np fq (H); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn, Megachile montivaga sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn cp fq (Rb, CB), Osmia spp. cp fq (CB), Osmia albiventris (CC), Osmia distincta sn cp fq olg (Rb, CC), Osmia proxima (CC), Osmia pumila sn (Rb, CC), Osmia simillima (CC)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon virescens cp, Augochlorella striata cp fq (CB), Lasioglossum spp. cp fq (CB), Lasioglossum coriaceus cp, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus cp, Lasioglossum pruinosus cp, Lasioglossum versatus cp; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus spp. cp (CB)

Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus prf sn@prf np, Stenodynerus anormis sn@prf np; Vespidae (Masarinae): Pseudomasaris occidentalis sn cp olg (CB)

Syrphidae: Toxomerus marginatus fsp np

Pieridae: Colias philodice sn np; Papilionidae: Papilio troilus sn np (Rb, CB)

Sphingidae: Hyles lineata sn np

Buprestidae: Acmaeodera tubulus (McR); Scarabaeidae (Cetonniae): Trichiotinus piger fp np