Flower-Visiting Insects
of Culver's Root


Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's Root)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies and beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson, Clinebell, Petersen, Steury et al., Tuell et al., and Williams as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Cl, Tll); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus bimaculatus (Cl), Bombus fervidus (Pt), Bombus griseocollis fq (Cl), Bombus impatiens fq (Cl, Tll), Bombus pensylvanicus sn (Rb), Bombus vagans sn (Rb, Pt); Anthophoridae (Anthophorinae): Anthophora terminalis (Cl); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata/dupla (Tll), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb, Cl); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn fq (Rb); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica (Cl); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile exilis (Cl), Megachile mendica (SDO); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis cylindricus sn cp (Rb), Hoplitis pilosifrons sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti cp (Rb)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon texanus texanus sn (Rb), Agapostemon virescens sn (Rb), Augochlorella striata (Pt), Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn (Rb), Halictus confusus sn (Rb, Pt), Halictus ligatus sn (Rb, Pt), Halictus rubicundus fq (Cl, Tll), Lasioglossum sp. (Cl), Lasioglossum admirandum (Tll), Lasioglossum cattellae (Cl), Lasioglossum coriaceum cp (Rb), Lasioglossum imitatum cp fq (Rb, Cl), Lasioglossum pilosum pilosum sn (Rb), Lasioglossum rohweri (Cl, Tll), Lasioglossum versatum sn cp fq (Rb); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn (Rb), Hylaeus mesillae sn (Rb), Hylaeus modestus modestus (Cl)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Stictia carolina (Rb); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans (Rb), Ammophila procera (Rb), Sphex ichneumonea (Rb)

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalinus aeneus sn fp (Rb), Eristalis tenax sn fp (Rb), Eristalis transversus fp np (Rb), Syritta pipiens sn (Rb), Toxomerus marginatus fp np (Rb); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn (Rb); Conopidae: Physocephala sp. (Cl), Thecophora occidensis sn (Rb); Tachinidae: Archytas analis sn (Rb)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Vanessa virginiensis (Rb); Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas (Rb), Lycaena hyllus (Rb); Pieridae: Pieris rapae (Rb)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus (Cl)

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Rb); Pyralidae: Nomophila nearctica (Rb)

Beetles
Cantharidae:
Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Wms)

Plant Bugs
Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus (Rb)


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