Flower-Visiting Insects
of Canada Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis (Canada Goldenrod)
(These records include both Solidago altissima and Solidago canadensis as they have not been reliably distinguished in the past. Bees suck nectar and/or collect pollen; flies mostly suck nectar, otherwise they feed on pollen; beetles feed on nectar or feed on pollen or gnaw on floral tissue; plant bugs suck nectar or feed on floral tissue; other insects suck nectar. Observations are from Robertson, Graenicher, Reed, Petersen, Moure & Hurd, Hilty, Krombein et al., Macior, Grundel et al., Williams, Voss, and Wilhelm & Rericha as indicated below.)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apini): Apis mellifera sn cp fq (Rb, Pt, Gr, Re, Gnd, WR); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn cp (Gr, Re), Bombus centralis sn cp (Gr), Bombus fervidus (Pt), Bombus fraternus sn (Rb), Bombus griseocollis sn fq (Rb, Re, WR), Bombus impatiens sn cp fq (Rb, Re, Gnd, WR), Bombus pensylvanicus sn fq (Rb), Bombus ternarius (Re), Bombus vagans sn cp (Rb, Gr, Re, Mc), Psithyrus citrinus (Re), Psithyrus variabilis sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata (WR), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb, Gr), Ceratina mikmaqi (WR), Ceratina strenua (WR); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus autumnalis sn (Rb), Epeolus pusillus sn (Rb), Epeolus scutellaris sn (WR), Triepeolus pectoralis sn (Rb, WR); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn (WR), Melissodes boltoniae sn cp (Rb, WR), Melissodes dentiventris sn cp (Rb), Melissodes druriella (WR), Melissodes illata (Re), Melissodes nivea sn cp (Rb, Gr), Melissodes rustica sn cp (Rb, Gr), Melissodes trinodis sn (WR); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada placida sn (Rb), Nomada vicina vicina sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginicia sn cp (Gr, WR); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn (WR), Coelioxys sayi sn (Rb, WR); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile latimanus (WR), Megachile mendica (Re, WR), Megachile relativa (Re); Megachilidae (Osmiinae): Ashmeadiella bucconis sn cp (Rb); Megachilidae (Stelidini): Stelis foederalis sn (Gr), Stelis trypetinum sn fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades carinata sn cp (Gr), Heriades leavitti sn cp fq (Rb), Heriades variolosus variolosus sn (Rb)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericeus (WR), Augochlora pura (Gnd, WR), Augochloella aurata (WR), Augochlorella striata sn (Gr, MH, Re), Augochloropsis metallica fulgida (WR), Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn (Rb, Gnd), Halictus confusus sn cp (Rb, Gr, WR), Halictus ligatus sn cp (Rb, Re, WR), Halictus rubicundus sn cp (Rb, Gr, WR), Lasioglossum spp. (Halictus spp.) sn (Re, Gr), Lasioglossum albipenne sn cp (Rb), Lasioglossum anomalum (WR), Lasioglossum cattellae (Gnd, WR), Lasioglossum cinctipes sn cp (Gr, WR), Lasioglossum connexum sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum coriaceum sn cp (Rb), Lasioglossum cressonii (WR), Lasioglossum ephialtum (WR), Lasioglossum forbesii sn cp (Rb), Lasioglossum foveolatum (Gnd), Lasioglossum foxii sn (Gr), Lasioglossum illinoense (WR), Lasioglossum imitatum (WR), Lasioglossum laevissimum (MH), Lasioglossum leucozonium (Re), Lasioglossum lineatulum (Re), Lasioglossum paraforbesii (Re), Lasioglossum pectorale (Re, Gnd, WR), Lasioglossum pilosum (Re), Lasioglossum platyparium (WR), Lasioglossum rohweri (Re), Lasioglossum truncatum (WR), Lasioglossum versatum sn cp fq (Rb, WR), Lasioglossum vierecki (Gnd), Lasioglossum zephyrum sn (Gr); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes sp. sn (Re), Sphecodes clematidis sn (Gr), Sphecodes cressonii sn fq (Rb, Gr), Sphecodes davisii sn (Gr), Sphecodes dichrous sn (Gr), Sphecodes heraclei heraclei sn (Rb, WR), Sphecodes mandibularis sn (Gnd), Sphecodes minor sn (Gr), Sphecodes prosphorus sn (Gr), Sphecodes smilacinae sn (Rb), Sphecodes stygius sn (Rb); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americanus sn cp fq (Rb), Colletes compactus sn cp (Rb, WR), Colletes eulophi sn cp (Rb, Gr), Colletes simulans armata sn cp fq olg (Rb, Gr, Re, WR); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus sp. (WR), Hylaeus affinis sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Hylaeus illinoisensis sn fq (Rb, WR), Hylaeus mesillae sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re, Gnd, WR), Hylaeus modestus modestus sn cp fq (Rb, Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena asteris sn (Gr, Re, WR), Andrena canadensis sn cp (Gr, WR), Andrena helianthi (Kr), Andrena hirticincta sn cp olg (Gr, Re, WR), Andrena nubecula sn cp fq olg (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Andrena peckhami cp (Gr), Andrena placata cp olg (Re, WR), Andrena simplex sn cp fq icp olg (Rb, Gr, Re, Kr, WR); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn (Gr, Kr), Calliopsis coloradensis sn cp fq icp (Rb), Heterosarus andrenoides sn cp fq icp (Rb), Heterosarus labrosiformis labrosiformis sn (Rb), Heterosarus parvus sn cp, Heterosarus solidaginis sn cp fq (Rb), Peridata halictoides (WR), Perdita octomaculata sn cp fq icp (Rb, WR), Pseudopanurgus andrenoides (WR), Pseudopanurgus compositarum (WR), Pseudopanurgus nebrascensis (WR)

Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bicyrtes ventralis sn (Gr), Gorytes simillimus sn (Gr), Hoplisoides costalis sn (Gr), Pseudoplisus phaleratus sn (Rb), Stizoides renicinctus sn (Rb), Synnevrus aequalis sn (Gr); Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus sn fq (Rb, Gr), Crabro tumidus sn (Rb), Ectemnius sp. sn (Re), Ectemnius continuus sn (Rb, WR), Ectemnius decemmaculatus sn (Rb, Gr, WR), Ectemnius dives sn (Gr), Ectemnius lapidarius sn (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Ectemnius maculosus sn (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Ectemnius trifasciatus sn (Gr), Lestica confluenta sn (Rb, Gr), Lestica producticollis sn (Gr), Lindenius columbianus sn (Rb), Oxybelus emarginatus sn fq (Rb, WR), Oxybelus mexicanus sn fq (Rb), Oxybelus niger sn (Rb), Oxybelus uniglumis sn (Rb, Gr); Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta sn fq (Rb), Larra analis sn (Gr), Lyroda subita sn (Gr), Tachysphex acuta sn (Rb), Tachysphex pompiliformis sn (Gr), Tachysphex tarsata sn (Gr), Tachytes aurulenta sn (Gr), Tachytes crassus sn (Re), Tachytes pepticus sn (Gr); Sphecidae (Pemphredoninae): Mimesa cressonii sn (Gr), Mimesa denticulata sn (Rb); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata sn (Gr, WR), Cerceris compacta sn (Rb), Cerceris deserta sn (Gr, Re), Cerceris finitima sn (Rb), Cerceris fumipennis sn (Gr), Cerceris insolita sn (WR), Cerceris kennicottii sn (Rb), Cerceris nigrescens sn (Gr, Re), Cerceris prominens sn (Rb), Eucerceris fulvipes sn fq (Rb), Eucerceris zonata sn fq (Rb), Philanthus bilunatus sn (Gr, Re), Philanthus gibbosus sn (Gr, WR), Philanthus sanbornii sn (Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi sn (Rb, Gr), Ammophila nigricans sn (Gr), Ammophila urnaria sn (Re), Isodontia apicalis sn (Rb), Isodontia philadelphica sn (Gr), Prionyx atratus sn (Rb), Prionyx thomae sn (Rb), Sceliphron caementarium sn (Rb), Sphex ichneumoneus sn (Rb, WR), Sphex pensylvanicus sn (Rb, WR); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Ancistrocerus antilope sn (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Ancistrocerus campestris sn (Rb, WR), Ancistrocerus catskill sn (Rb, Re), Eumenes crucifera sn (Re), Eumenes fraternus sn (Rb, Gr), Euodynerus annulatus sn (Rb), Euodynerus foraminatus sn (Rb, Re, WR), Euodynerus hidalgo sn (WR), Leionotus scrophulariae sn fq (Rb–MS), Leionotus ziziae sn (Rb–MS), Parancistrocerus pedestris sn (WR), Parancistrocerus pensylvanicus sn (Gr), Stenodynerus anormis sn (Rb), Zethus spinipes sn (Rb); Vespidae (Polistinae):
Polistes annularis sn fq (Rb), Polistes carolina sn (Rb), Polistes dominula sn (WR), Polistes fuscatus sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re, WR); Vespidae (Vespinae): Dolichovespula arenaria sn (Gr), Dolichovespula maculata sn (WR), Vespula germanica sn (Rb), Vespula maculifrons sn (WR), Vespula squamosa sn (Rb), Vespula vidua sn (Re); Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta sn (Rb); Tiphiidae: Myzinum maculatum sn (Re), Myzinum quinquecinctum sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Tiphia intermedia sn (Rb); Scoliidae: Campsomeris plumipes sn (WR), Scolia bicincta sn (Rb, Gr, WR), Scolia dubia sn (WR), Scolia nobilitata sn (Rb); Pompilidae: Ageniella agenioides sn (Rb), Anoplius aethiops sn (Gr), Anoplius illinoensis sn (Rb), Anoplius marginatus sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Anoplius nigritus sn (Rb), Ceropales bipunctata sn (Rb, Gr), Ceropales elegans sn (Rb), Ceropales fulvipes sn (Rb), Ceropales maculata sn (Rb, Gr, WR), Entypus fulvicornis sn (Rb, WR), Entypus unifasciatus sn (Gr), Episyron biguttatus sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Evagetes parvus sn (Rb), Poecilopompilus interrupta sn (Rb, Gr); Chrysididae: Hedychrum violaceum sn (Rb); Mutillidae: Pseudomethoca frigida sn (Gr); Leucospididae: Leucospis affinis sn fq (Rb, Gr, WR); Perilampidae: Perilampus fulvicornis sn (Rb), Perilampus hyalinus sn (Gr), Perilampus robertsoni sn (Rb); Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruption tarsatorium sn (Rb, Gr, WR); Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Cratichneumon suadus sn (Gr), Cremastus hyalinipennis sn (Re), Cryptus albitarsis sn (Gr), Cryptus persimilis sn (Gr), Diadegma pattoni sn (Rb), Eutanyacra succinctus sn (Gr), Glyphicnemis mandibularis sn (Gr), Lissonota clypeator sn (Rb, Gr), Metopius pollinctorius sn (Rb), Trathala delicatus sn (Rb); Braconidae: Agathis perforator sn (Gr), Atanycolus simplex sn (Rb), Bracon mellitor sn (Rb), Chelonus sericeus sn (Rb, Gr), Meteorus areolatus sn fq (Rb), Rogas terminalis sn (Re), Vipio rugator sn fq (Rb)

Formicidae (Dolichoderinae): Dolichoderus pustulatus sn np (WR); Formicidae (Formicinae): Formica incerta sn np (WR), Formica montana sn np (WR), Formica subsericea sn np (WR)

Stratiomyidae: Hedriodiscus binotatus sn (Gr), Hedriodiscus trivittatus sn (Gr), Hedriodiscus vertebratus sn (Gr), Nemotelus glaber sn (Rb), Odontomyia cincta sn (Gr), Odontomyia virgo sn (Gr), Stratiomys badia sn (Gr), Stratiomys lativentris sn (Gr), Stratiomys normula sn (Gr); Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua sn (Rb, Gr), Cheilosia punctulata sn (Rb), Epistrophe emarginata sn (Rb, Re), Eristalinus aeneus (WR), Eristalis anthophorina sn (Rb, Gr), Eristalis arbustorum (Gr), Eristalis dimidiata sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Eristalis flavipes sn (Rb, WR), Eristalis stipator sn (Rb, Re, WR), Eristalis tenax sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Eristalis transversa (Gr, Re, WR), Eupeodes americanus sn (Rb, WR), Helophilus fasciatus sn fp fq (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Helophilus latifrons sn (Rb, Gr), Heringia salax (Gr), Mallota posticata (Gr), Milesia virginiensis sn (Rb), Ocyptamus fascipennis (Gr), Orthonevra nitida sn fp (Rb), Orthonevra pulchella (Gr), Palpada vinetorum (Gr), Paragus bicolor sn (Rb, Gr), Parhelophilus laetus (Gr), Platycheirus sp. (Re), Platycheirus hyperboreus sn (Rb), Platycheirus quadratus sn (Rb), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Gr, WR), Spilomyia longicornis sn (Rb, Gr), Spilomyia sayi sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Syritta pipiens sn (Rb, Gr, Re, WR), Syrphus ribesii (Gr, WR), Toxomerus geminatus sn (Rb, Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr, Re, WR), Toxomerus politus sn fq (Rb), Tropidia mamillata sn fq (Rb); Agromyzidae: Cerodontha angulata (Gr); Empidae: Empis clausa sn (Rb); Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira (Gr); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora sn (Rb), Exoprosopa fascipennis sn (Rb), Poecilanthrax halcyon (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus sn (Rb, Gr, WR), Toxophora amphitea sn (Rb), Villa alternata (Gr), Villa fulviana (Gr); Sciaridae: Sciara exigua (Gr); Conopidae: Physocephala texana sn (Rb, Gr), Physocephala tibialis sn (Rb, WR), Physoconops brachyrhynchus sn (Rb), Physoconops sylvosus sn (Rb), Robertsonomyia palpalis sn (Rb), Thecophora occidensis sn (Rb, Gr); Tachinidae: Allophorocera occidentalis (Gr), Archytas analis (Gr), Belvosia bifasciata (Gr), Belvosia unifasciata sn (Rb), Cylindromyia binotata (Re), Cylindromyia carolinae (Gr), Cylindromyia dosiades (Gr), Cylindromyia euchenor sn (Rb), Estheria tibialis (Gr), Chaetogaedia analis (Gr), Eumia caesar (Gr), Exorista mella (Gr), Gnadochaeta clistoides sn (Rb), Gnadochaeta metallica sn (Rb), Gnadochaeta nigrifrons sn (Rb), Gymnochaeta alcedo (Gr), Gymnoclytia immaculata (Gr), Gymnoclytia occidua sn (Rb), Gymnosoma fulignosum sn (Rb, Gr), Leschenaultia leucophrys (Gr), Leucostoma simplex (Gr), Linnaemya comta (Gr), Lydina areos (Gr), Microphthalma disjuncta (Gr), Mochlosoma sp. (Gr), Mystacella chrysoprocta (Gr), Neaera robertsonii sn (Rb), Opsidia gonioides (Gr), Panzeria aldrichi (Gr), Periscepsia helymus (Gr), Periscepsia laevigata sn (Rb), Ptilodexia sp. (Re), Spallanzania hesperidarum (Gr), Strongygaster triangulifera (Gr), Tachinomyia panaetius (Gr), Trichopoda plumipes sn (Rb), Winthemia quadripustulata (Gr); Chloropidae: Meromyza americana (Gr); Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons sn (Rb), Blaesoxipha hunteri sn (Rb), Erythrandra distincta sn (Rb), Helicobia rapax sn (Rb, Gr), Oebalia aristalis sn (Rb), Ravinia anxia sn (Rb), Sarcophaga sp. (Gr), Sarcophaga sarracenioides (Gr), Sphixapata trilineata sn (Rb, Gr); Calliphoridae: Bellardia sp. (Gr), Cochliomyia macellaria sn fq (Rb), Cynomya sp. (Gr), Lucilia illustris (Gr), Phormia regina (Gr); Muscidae: Graphomya americana sn (Rb), Graphomya maculata (Gr), Morellia micans sn (Rb, Gr), Neomyia cornicina sn fq (Rb), Phaonia sp. (Gr), Stomoxys calcitrans sn (Rb); Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia leucostoma (Gr), Calythea nigricans sn (Rb), Calythea pratincola (Gr), Delia platura (Gr), Phorbia sp. (Gr); Fanniidae: Fannia manicata sn (Rb); Otitidae: Tritoxa flexa (WR); Tephritidae: Dioxyna picciola sn (Rb), Euraresta bella (Gr); Culicidae: Aedes vexans sn (Gr)

Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus sn (Rb, Gr), Phyciodes tharos sn (Gr), Vanessa cardui sn (Rb); Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus sn (Gr), Lycaena hyllus sn (Rb), Lycaena phlaeas americana sn (V), Satyrium sp. sn (Gr), Satyrium calanus sn (Gr); Pieridae: Colias philodice sn (Rb)

Arctiidae: Lycomorpha pholus sn (Gr); Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis sn (Rb, Gr, H, Re); Noctuidae: Euxoa velleripennis sn (Rb), Feltia jaculifera sn (Rb), Helicoverpa zea sn fq (Rb), Mythimna unipuncta sn (Gr); Tortricidae: Grapholita interstinctana sn (Gr)

Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn fq (Rb, Wms); Carabidae: Calleida punctata fp (Rb, WR); Cerambycidae: Megacyllene decorum fp (Rb), Megacyllene robiniae fp fq (Rb, Gr), Typocerus velutinus velutinus (Gr); Chrysomelidae: Acalymma vittatum fp (Rb), Acanthoscelides obsoletus sn (Rb), Diabrotica longicornis fp fq (Rb), Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp fq (Rb, Gr), Luperaltica nigripalpis (WR); Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus (Gr); Coccinellidae: Coccinella novemnotata sn (Rb), Coleomegilla maculata fp (Rb), Hippodamia glacialis sn fq (Rb); Meloidae: Epicauta pennsylvanica fp fq (Rb, Gr, H); Melyridae: Collops quadrimaculatus sn (Rb); Mordellidae: Mordella melaena (Gr), Mordellistena comata (Gr); Scarabaeidae (Cetoniidae): Euphoria sepulcralis fp (Rb), Trichiotinus piger (Gr)

Plant Bugs
Alydidae: Alydus pilosulus (Rb); Lygaeidae: Neacoryphus bicrucis (WR), Lygaeus turcicus (Rb, Gr); Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Rb, Gr), Cimex ruficornis (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr), Metriorrhynchomiris dislocatus (Gr), Neurocolpus nubilus (WR), Plagiognathus sp. (Gr), Plagiognathus politus (Gr); Reduviidae: Sinea diadema prd np (WR); Rhopalidae: Boisea trivittata (WR); Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicaria (Gr)