Flower-Visiting Insects
of Butter-and-Eggs

Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-Eggs) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, beetle activity is unspecified, while other insects suck nectar; according to Robertson, only bumblebees are effective at cross-pollination, although Arnold states that Halictid bees are also effective; observations are from Robertson, Arnold, Macior, Swengel, and Williams as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp np (Rb); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis fq (Arn, Mc), Bombus auricomus fq (Mc), Bombus bimaculatus (Mc), Bombus fervida fq (Arn, Mc), Bombus griseocollis fq (Mc), Bombus impatiens sn cp (Rb), Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus terricola (Arn), Bombus vagans (Rb, Arn) sn, Psithyrus citrinus sn (Arn); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis cp np (Rb); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn cp np (Rb)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon virescens sn np (Rb), Halictus confusus (Arn), Lasioglossum pilsosus (Arn), Lasioglossum tegularis (Arn)

Nymphalidae: Vanessa cardui sn np (Rb); Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis sn (Sw); Pieridae: Colias philodice sn np (Rb), Pieris rapae sn np (Rb)

Hesperiidae: Erynnis juvenalis sn np (Rb), Polites themistocles sn np (Rb)

Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Wms)