Flower-Visiting Insects
of Bull Thistle

Cirsium vulgare (Bull Thistle) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, Syrphid flies & beetles feed on pollen, other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Graenicher, Krombein et al., and Williams as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn fq, Bombus impatiens sn fq, Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq icp (Rb, Gr), Bombus vagans sn cp (Rb, Gr), Psithyrus citrinus sn, Psithyrus variabilis sn; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora walshii sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Emphorini): Ptilothrix bombiformis sn; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus concavus sn, Triepeolus donatus sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq, Triepeolus nevadensis sn, Triepeolus remigatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn, Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn, Melissodes coloradensis sn, Melissodes communis sn, Melissodes comptoides sn, Melissodes desponsa sn cp fq icp olg (Rb, Gr), Melissodes rustica sn, Melissodes trinodis sn, (Rb, Gr), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn fq; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile latimanus sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Megachile parallela parallela sn, Megachile pugnatus sn cp (Gr)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn (Rb, Gr), Agapostemon texanus texanus sn cp, Agapostemon virescens sn cp (Rb, Gr), Halictus ligatus cp np, Halictus rubicunda sn (Gr), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus cp np; Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni sn (Rb, Kr); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae (Kr)

Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn, Systoechus vulgaris sn fq; Conopidae: Physocephala tibialis sn; Syrphidae: Epistrophe emarginata fp (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus fp (Gr)

Nymphalidae: Cercyonis pegala alope (Gr), Danaus plexippus (Rb, Gr), Phyciodes tharos, Speyeria cybele (Gr), Speyeria idalia (Rb, Gr); Papilionidae: Papilio glaucus (Rb, Gr), Papilio polyxenes asterias (Rb, Gr), Papilio troilus; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Eurema nicippe, Pontia protodice

Hesperiidae: Poanes zabulon, Polites peckius (Rb, Gr), Polites themistocles fq (Rb, Gr), Thorybes bathyllus

Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis; Noctuidae: Helicoverpa zea (Gr)

Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus fp (Gr, Wms); Melyridae: Malachius thevenetti fp (Gr)