Flower-Visiting Insects
of Blue Vervain


Verbena hastata (Blue Vervain)
(Bees usually suck nectar, but sometimes collect pollen as indicated below; other insects usually suck nectar, although some of the Syrphid flies may feed on pollen; observations are from Robertson, Reed, Graenicher, Krombein et al., Conger, and Swengel & Swengel as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Re); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn (Rb), Bombus bimaculatus (Re), Bombus griseocallis (Re), Bombus impatiens sn cp (Rb), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq (Rb), Bombus vagans (Re), Psithyrus citrinus sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re), Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Rb, Cng); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn fq (Rb), Triepeolus concavus sn (Rb), Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn (Rb), Triepeolus helianthi helianthi sn (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn (Rb), Triepeolus pectoralis sn (Rb), Triepeolus remigatus sn (Rb), Triepeolus simplex sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn (Rb), Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn (Rb), Melissodes coloradensis sn (Rb), Melissodes comptoides sn (Rb), Melissodes dentiventris sn (Rb), Melissodes nivea sn (Rb), Melissodes rustica sn fq (Rb), Melissodes trinodis sn fq (Rb, Re), Svastra atripes atripes sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn fq (Rb), Coelioxys sayi sn fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis (Re), Megachile latimanus sn (Rb, Cng)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn (Rb, Re, Cng), Augochlorella striata sn fq (Rb, Re), Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn (Rb), Halictus confusus sn fq (Rb, Re), Halictus ligatus sn (Rb, Re), Halictus rubicunda sn (Rb), Lasioglossum coriaceus sn (Rb), Lasioglossum pruinosus sn (Rb), Lasioglossum zephyrus sn (Rb); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn cp (Rb, Kr), Calliopsis nebraskensis (Kr), Calliopsis verbenae sn cp fq olg (Rb)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix nubilipennis (Rb), Microbembex monodonta (Cng); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans (Rb), Ammophila pictipennis (Rb), Ammophila procera (Rb), Eremnophila aureonotata fq icp (Rb), Prionyx atrata (Rb), Sphex ichneumonea (Rb); Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta (Rb); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus (Cng); Vespidae (Vespinae): Dolichovespula maculata (Rb)

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Cng), Helophilus latifrons (Cng), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Re, Cng), Syritta pipiens (Cng), Tropidia quadrata (Cng); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora (Gr), Exoprosopa fasciata (Rb, Gr) fq, Exoprosopa fascipennis (Rb), Rhynchanthrax parvicornis (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus (Rb), Systoechus vulgaris (Rb, Gr) fq, Systropus macer fq (Rb), Tmemophlebia cyanoceps (Cng), Villa alternata (Gr); Conopidae: Physocephala texana fq (Rb), Physocephala tibialis (Rb), Stylogaster biannulata fq (Rb); Tachinidae: Archytas analis (Rb); Sarcophagidae: Ravinia derelicta (Rb); Calliphoridae: Lucilia sp. (Re)

Butterflies
Pieridae: Colias philodice (Rb), Pontia protodice (Rb); Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Cng, Sw)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Ancyloxypha numitor (Rb), Epargyreus clarus (Rb, Cng), Pholisora catullus (Rb)

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Rb); Noctuidae: Spragueia onagrus (Cng)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus fq (Rb)

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Rb)


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