Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds
of Wild Bergamot

Monarda fistulosa (Wild Bergamot)
(Long-tongued bees usually suck nectar, but sometimes collect pollen as indicated below; short-tongued bees steal nectar at perforations of flowers [sn@prf] by wasps or they collect pollen, and they are non-pollinating; bee flies usually suck nectar, while other flies feed on pollen, explore the flowers, and are non-pollinating; wasps perforate the flowers to steal nectar, while other wasps suck nectar from these perforations or explore the flowers without feeding; beetles feed on pollen or explore the flowers and are non-pollinating; other insects & hummingbirds suck nectar; observations are from Robertson, Reed, Graenicher, Evans, Petersen, Moure & Hurd, Mitchell, Hilty, Grundel & Pavlovic, Clinebell, Swengel & Swengel, Bertin, Grundel et al., Williams, Tartaglia, and Voss as indicated below)

Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (Rb, H, Brt)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn@prf np (Rb, Ev, Re, Cl); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis (Re), Bombus auricomus sn fq (Rb, Re), Bombus bimaculatus fq (Ev, Pt, Re, Cl, Gnd), Bombus borealis (Re), Bombus fervidus (Pt, Re), Bombus griseocollis sn fq (Rb, Re, Cl), Bombus impatiens (Ev, Re, Cl, Gnd), Bombus nevadensis fq (Cl), Bombus pensylvanicus sn fq (Rb, Pt, Re), Bombus perplexus (Re), Bombus vagans sn fq (Rb, Pt, Re); Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta (Cl), Anthophora terminalis (Re); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. np (Re, Cl), Ceratina dupla dupla sn@prf cp np (Rb, Ev, Gnd), Ceratina strenua (Gnd); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus concavus sn (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn (Rb), Triepeolus nevadensis sn (Rb), Triepeolus remigatus sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Anthedonia compta sn fq (Rb), Melissodes sp. (Cl), Melissodes agilis sn (Rb), Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn cp fq (Rb, Re), Melissodes communis cp (Rb), Melissodes comptoides sn (Rb), Melissodes desponsa sn (Rb), Melissodes trinodis sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica fq (Cl); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys rufitarsis rufitarsis sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile latimanus sn (Rb, Ev), Megachile mendica (Ev, Cl), Megachile montivaga sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons (Ev), Hoplitis producta (Re); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades carinatus (Ev, Re, Cl, Gnd)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Dufoureinae): Dufourea monardae cp olg (Ev, MH, Re); Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn@prf np ( Rb, MH, Re), Agapostemon texanus texanus (Re), Agapostemon virescens (Re, Cl), Augochlora pura (Re), Augochlorella sp. (Cl), Augochlorella aurata (Gnd), Augochlorella striata sn@prf np (Rb, MH, Re, Cl), Augochloropsis sumptuosa (Gnd), Halictus confusus sn@prf np (Rb, Ev, Pt, MH, Re), Halictus ligatus sn@prf np (Rb, MH), Halictus rubicundus sn@prf np (Rb, Ev, MH, Re, Cl), Lasioglossum spp. (Re), Lasioglossum anomalum (Re, Gnd), Lasioglossum foveolatum (Gnd), Lasioglossum imitatus (Re, Cl), Lasioglossum obscurus (MH), Lasioglossum paraforbesii (Re), Lasioglossum pectoralis (Ev), Lasioglossum pictus (Re), Lasioglossum pilosum pilosum sn@ prf np cp (Rb, Ev, MH, Re, Gnd), Lasioglossum pruinosus (Re), Lasioglossum rohweri (Re), Lasioglossum subviridatum (Gnd), Lasioglossum supraclypeatus (Re), Lasioglossum versatus sn@prf cp np (Rb, MH), Lasioglossum vierecki (Gnd); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes nudus (Mch); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae (Re); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena hirticincta (Re); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Protandrena bancrofti (Re)

Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus np (Re), Ectemnius ruficornis (Cl); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata np (Re); Vespidae: Dolichovespula maculata np (Re), Polistes dorsalis prf sn@prf np; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus prf sn@prf np (Rb, Re); Braconidae: Cardiochiles sp. np (Re); Perilampidae: Perilampus hyalinus np (Re);

Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua np (Re), Eristalis stipator np (Re), Eupeodes sp. np (Re), Platycheirus sp. np (Re), Sphaerophoria contiqua np (Re), Syritta pipiens np (Re), Syrphus sp. np (Re), Toxomerus geminatus np (Re), Toxomerus marginatus np (Re); Bombyliidae: Anthrax albofasciatus fp np (Rb, Gr), Exoprosopa sp. (Cl), Exoprosopa decora sn (Rb), Exoprosopa fasciata sn (Rb), Hemipenthes sinuosa (Gr, Re), Systoechus vulgaris sn (Rb, Gr) fq; Conopidae: Physocephala tibialis sn (Rb, Re), Stylogaster biannulata sn np (Rb); Anthomyiidae: Hylemya sp. np (Re)

Nymphalidae: Asterocampa celtis (Re), Cercyonis pegala (Cl), Danaus plexippus fq (Rb, Cl, V), Limenitis archippus (Rb), Phyciodes tharos (Cl), Speyeria aphrodite aphrodite (Re), Speyeria cybele fq (Rb, Re, Cl), Speyeria idalia (Rb), Vanessa atalanta (Rb, Cl), Vanessa cardui (Rb), Vanessa virginiensis (Rb); Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis fq (GP, Sw), Satyrium titus (V); Pieridae: Colias philodice (Rb), Colias eurytheme (Cl), Pontia protodice (Rb); Papilionidae: Battus philenor fq (Rb), Papilio cresphontes (Rb), Papilio glaucus (Cl), Papilio polyxenes asterias fq (Rb), Papilio troilus (Rb, H, Cl)

Hesperiidae: Achalarus lyciades (Rb, Cl), Anatrytone logan (Rb, Re), Atalopedes campestris (Cl), Epargyreus clarus (Rb, Re, Cl), Euphyes vestris (Rb, Re, V), Pholisora catullus (Rb), Poanes zabulon (Rb), Polites origanes (Re), Polites peckius (Cl), Staphylus hayhurstii (Rb), Thorybes bathyllus (Rb), Thorybes pylades (Cl), Wallengrenia egerement fq (Re, V)

Sphingidae: Hemaris diffinis (Rb, Re, Cl, Trt), Hemaris gracilis (Trt), Hemaris thysbe (Rb, H, Re, Cl, Trt)

Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus np (Re, Wms)