Insects Feeding
on these Plants:


Vernonia spp.
(Ironweed) [Asteraceae]
(Observations are from Vaurie, Rider, Clark et al., DeLong, Hottes & Frison, Yanega, Dmitriev & Dietrich, Covell, Felt, Blackman & Eastop, Gangwere, Natural History Museum, Panzer et al., ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Cerambycidae: Hemierana marginata ardens Ya1996; Chrysomelidae: Exema canadensis Clk2004; Curculionidae: Rhodobaenus tredecimpunctatus (Thirteen-Spotted Billbug) Vau1983

Diptera (Flies)
Cecidomyiidae: Asphondylia vernoniae (Ironweed Bud Midge) [larvae probably form bud galls] Flt1917, Neolasioptera vernoniae [larvae cause deformed flowerheads, swollen petioles, and midrib galls on leaves] Flt1917, Youngomyia podophyllae (Ironweed Blossum Midge) [larvae are found in flowerheads] Flt1917

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Pentatomidae: Brochymena quadripustulata (Four-Humped Stink Bug) Rid2009

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Aphis citricola [polyphagous] HF1931, Aphis vernoniae [found on tips of stems & leaf undersides, Ironweed species are preferred hosts] BE2013; Cicadellidae:
Kyboasca atrolabes [possible host plants] DD2010, Oncometopia nigricans Dlg1948; Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcus sorghiellus (Trochanter Mealybug) [polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in eastern USA] SN2014

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Arctiidae: Grammia parthenice (Parthenice Tiger Moth) Cv2005, Phragmatobia fuliginosa (Ruby Tiger Moth) [polyphagous, found in northern IL] Cv2005; Coleophoridae: Coleophora vernoniaeella [larvae are leafminers] NHM2010; Gelechiidae: Dichomeris setosella NHM2010; Geometridae: Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria (Blackberry Looper Moth) [larvae feed on petaloid rays] NHM2010; Noctuidae: Papaipema cerussata (Ironweed Borer Moth) [oligophagous] Cv2005 NHM2010 Pnz2006, Papaipema limpida (Vernonia Borer Moth) [larvae bore through stems] NHM2010; Perigea xanthioides (Red Groundling) Cv2005 NHM2010, Pyreferra hesperidago (Mustard Sallow) Cv2005; Pterophoridae: Hellinsia paleaceus [larvae feed on young foliage, oligophagous] NHM2010; Pyralidae: Polygrammodes flavidalis (Ironweed Root Moth) [larvae bore into roots] Cv2005 NHM2010 Pnz2006, Polygrammodes langdonalis Cv2005; Sesiidae: Carmenta bassiformis (Ironweed Clearwing Moth) NHM2010; Tortricidae: Paralobesia vernoniana [Vernonia noveboracensis is a host plant; syn. Endopiza vernoniana] NHM2010 Pnz2006

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers)
Oecanthidae: Oecanthus quadripunctatus (Four-spotted Tree Cricket) [feeds on flowerheads, field observations] Ggw1961