Insects Feeding
on this Plant

Trifolium spp.
(Clover) [Fabaceae]
(Observations are from Vance, Milne & Milne, DeLong, Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta., Hottes & Frison, Rider, Wagner, Marshall, Bouseman & Sternburg, Bouseman et al., Covell, Cranshaw, Aldrich & Osten-Sacken, Felt, Blackman & Eastop, Wheeler et al., Watson, Gangwere, Brust et al., Opler & Krizek, Miller, Spencer & Steyskal, Majka et al., ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Chrysomelidae: Colaspis brunnea (Grape Colaspis) [larvae feed on roots] Crw2004; Curculionidae: Hypera meles (Clover Head Weevil) [this Eurasian insect is found in E & central USA, & SE Canada] MAM2007, Hypera nigrirostris (Lesser Cloverleaf Weevil) [introduced into N. America from abroad, feeds on leaves & flower buds] MM1980, Hypera punctata (Clover Leaf Weevil) [this Eurasian insect is widely distributed in North America; syn. Hypera zoilus] Msh2006 MAM2007, Sitona hispidulus (Clover Root Weevil) [introduced into N. America from Europe; adults feed on foliage, larvae feed on roots] Msh2006 MAM2007, Sitona lepidus (Lesser Clover Leaf Weevil) [adults feed on leaves, larvae feed on roots; this Eurasian insect is widely distributed in North America; syn. Sitona flavescens] MAM2007; Languriidae: Languria mozardi (Clover Stem Borer) Msh2006

Diptera (Flies)
Agromyzidae: Agromyza frontella (Alfalfa Blotch Leafminer) [found in Massachusetts, New Jersey, & New York] SS1986, Liriomyza fricki [larvae are leaf-miners; found in Wisconsin & Canada] SS1986; Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura leguminicola (Clover Seed Midge) [larvae are found in flowerheads, damaging seeds] AOS1905, Dasineura trifolii (Clover Leaf Midge) [larvae fold leaflets around galls] Flt1917

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Rapid Plant Bug) [found in meadows & pastures] Wat1928, Halticus bractatus (Garden Fleahopper) Wat1928, Lygus lineolaris (Tarnished Plant Bug) Wat1928, Metriorrhynchomiris dislocatus WHM1983, Poecilocapsus lineatus (Four-Lined Plant Bug) Wat1928; Pentatomidae: Coenus delia Rid2009, Holcostethus limbolarius [polyphagous] Rid2009, Trichopepla semivittata Rid2009

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Abstrusomyzus phloxae [polyphagous] BE2013, Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Blue Alfalfa Aphid) [found on stems & leaves, this aphid was introduced into North America from Asia] BE2013, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Pea Aphid) [found on young growth & developing seedpods] Crw2004 HF1931 BE2013, Brachycaudus helichrysi (Leafcurl Plum Aphid) Crw2004, Geoica squamosa HF1931, Nearctaphis bakeri (Clover Aphid) [found on young leaves & flower buds of hawthorns & other shrubs in the Rosaceae, migrating during the summer to various herbaceous plants in the Fabaceae & other plant families; this aphid is widely distributed in North America, including Illinois] Crw2004 BE2013, Nearctaphis crataegifoliae [twists & curls leaves of hawthorns, turning them purple; migrates during the summer to herbaceous plants in the Fabaceae; this aphid is distributed in central & E USA] BE2013, Prociphilus erigeronensis [found on the roots of many herbaceous plants in the Asteraceae, Poaceae, & Fabaceae; this aphid is widely distributed in the USA, it also occurs in Ontario] BE2013, Therioaphis ononidis HF1931, Therioaphis riehmi (Sweet Clover Aphid) [found on leaf undersides, species of Sweet Clover are preferred hosts; this Eurasian aphid has been introduced to NE USA, north-central USA, & Canada] BE2013, Therioaphis trifolii (Spotted Clover Aphid) [found on leaf undersides; this Eurasian aphid has been introduced to E USA & Canada, including Illinois & Quebec] BE2013; Cercopidae: Philaenus spumaria (Meadow Spittlebug) MM1980; Cicadellidae: Aceratagallia sanguinolenta (Clover Leafhopper) Crw2004 Dlg1948, Agalliota quadripunctatus (Four-Spotted Clover Leafhopper) Msh2006, Empoasca fabae Dlg1948, Stirellus bicolor Dlg1948;
Pseudococcidae: Chnaurococcus trifolii (Clover Root Mealybug) [found on roots, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in the USA & Canada] SN2014, Pseudococcus maritimus (Grape Mealybug) [found on foliage, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed] SN2014, Pseudococcus sorghiellus (Trochanter Mealybug) [polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in eastern USA] SN2014, Spilococcus geraniae (Geranium Mealybug) [found on leaf undersides & leaf axils, polyphagous; this insect has been found in New York, California, & Bristish Columbia; Herb Robert was observed as a host plant in New York] SN2014, Trionymus americanus (American Grass Mealybug) [found underneath leaf sheaths on grasses & on foliage for other kinds of vegetation, probably polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed] SN2014

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Arctiidae: Apantesis nais (Nais Tiger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005 Msh2006, Apantesis phalerata (Harnessed Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Grammia anna (Anna Tiger Moth) Cv2005, Grammia oithona (Oithona Tiger Moth) Cv2005, Grammia virgo (Virgin Tiger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Pyrrharctia isabella (Isabella Tiger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Coleophoridae: Coleophora spissicornis [larvae feed on seeds] Cv2005; Gelechiidae: Aristotelia roseosuffusella Cv2005;
Geometridae: Anacamptodes humaria (Small Purplish Gray) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Eupithecia miserulata (Common Pug) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Eusarca confusaria (Confused Eusarca) Cv2005, Haematopis grataria (Chickweed Geometer) Cv2005 Wg2005, Idaea obfusaria (Rippled Wave) [found in southern IL] Cv2005, Lobocleta ossularia (Drab Brown Wave) Cv2005,  Scopula inductata (Soft-Lined Wave) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Scopula limboundata (Large Lace-Border) [polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005; Hesperiidae: Thorybes pylades (Northern Cloudywing) Bou2006 OK1984; Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas (Eastern Tailed Blue) [larvae feed on buds & flowers] BS2001 Msh2006 Wg2005 OK1984, Strymon melinus (Gray Hairstreak) [larvae feed on flowers & fruits] OK1984; Noctuidae: Acronicta oblinita (Smeared Dagger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Agnorisma badinodis (Pale-Banded Dart) [syn. Xestia badinodis] Cv2005, Agrotis ipsilon (Ipsilon Dart) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Agrotis venerabilis (Venerable Dart) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Autographa precationis (Common Looper) [polyphagous] Wg2005, Caenurgina crassiuscula (Clover Looper Moth) Cv2005, Caenurgina erechtea (Forage Looper Moth) Cv2005, Choephora fungorum (Bent-Line Dart) Cv2005, Euclidia cuspidea (Toothed Somberwing) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Hypena scabra (Green Cloverworm) [syn. Pathypena scabra] Cv2005 Msh2006 Wg2005, Lacinipolia lorea (Bridled Arches) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Lacinipolia meditata (The Thinker) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Melanchra adjuncta (Hitched Arches) [polyphagous, found in northern IL] Cv2005, Melanchra picta (Zebra Caterpillar) [larvae feed on leaves, polyphagous] Wg2005, Phalaenostola larentioides (Black-Banded Owlet) [found in open areas, larvae feed on both dead & living leaves] Cv2005, Rachiplusia ou (Gray Looper Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall Armyworm) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Notodontidae: Dasylophia anguina (Black-Spotted Prominent) Cv2005 Wg2005; Pieridae: Colias cesonia (Dogface Sulphur) OK1984, Colias eurytheme (Orange Sulphur) BS2001 Crw2004 Msh2006, Colias philodice (Clouded Sulphur) BS2001 Msh2006 Wg2005; Pyralidae: Achryra rantalis (Garden Webworm) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Saturniidae: Automeris io (Io Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Tortricidae: Celypha cespitana (Celypha Moth) [larvae feed within tied leaves, polyphagous] Mlr1987, Grapholita interstinctana (Cloverhead Caterpillar) [larvae feed on flowerheads & leaves] Mlr1987, Platynota flavedana (Black-shaded Platynota) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Sparganothis sulfureana (Sparganothis Leafroller) Crw2004

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers)
Acrididae: Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper) [feeds on leaflets, field observations; this grasshopper is found in woodland openings, weedy areas, fields, & gardens] Ggw1961 BHW2008, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Migratory Grasshopper) [this grasshopper is found in open areas, woodland openings, & roadsides] Wy1994

Thysanoptera (Thrips)
Thripidae: Sericothrips cingulatus [grassy areas & sedge marshes] Van1974, Thrips tabaci [observed in IL] Van1974