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Insects Feeding
on these Plants
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Solidago spp.
(Goldenrod) [Asteraceae]
(Observations are from Funkhouser, Marshall, Milne & Milne, Wagner, Rider, Hottes & Frison, Knight, Dennis, Microleps website, Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta., Clark et al., Barnes, Lattin, Dmitriev & Dietrich, DeLong, Arnett & Jacques, Covell, Miller, Cranshaw, Arment, Needham et al., Aldrich & Osten-Sacken, Smith, Felt, Blackman & Eastop, Wheeler et al., Watson, Marcovitch, Hamilton, Vickery & Kevan, Brust et al., Loeffler, Pepper, Robinson & Bradley, Spencer & Steyskal, ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Chrysomelidae: Calligrapha californica Clk2004, Exema dispar Clk2004, Longitarsus solidaginis Clk2004, Microrhopala erebus Clk2004, Microrhopala excavata Clk2004, Microrhopala vittata Msh2006, Ophraella americana Clk2004, Ophraella conferta Clk2004 Msh2006, Ophraella cribata Clk2004, Ophraella sexvittata Clk2004, Trirhabda borealis Clk2004, Trirhabda canadensis (Goldenrod Leaf Beetle) Clk2004 Msh2006 Mar1916, Zygogramma suturalis AJ1981; Mordellidae: Mordellistena unicolor (Goldenrod Gall Beetle) [larvae are predacious on maggots of Eurosta solidaginis, which form galls on goldenrod stems] Msh2006

Diptera (Flies)
Agromyzidae: Amauromyza maculosa [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; widespread] SS1986, Calycomyza humeralis (Aster Leafminer) [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; widespread] SS1986, Calycomyza platyptera [larvae are leaf-miners; found in Maryland & Mississippi] SS1986, Calycomyza solidaginis [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; widespread] SS1986, Liriomyza eupatorii [larvae are leaf-miners; found in North Carolina, Tennessee, & Canada] SS1986, Nemorimyza posticata [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; widespread] Mar1916 SS1986, Ophiomyia quinta [larvae are leaf-miners; found in Arkansas, Pennsylvania, New York, & Ontario] SS1986, Phytoliriomyza arctica [larvae bore through stems; widespread] SS1986; Cecidomyiidae: Asphondylia johnsoni [larvae are found in flowerheads] Flt1917, Asphondylia monacha (Nun Midge) AOS1905 Flt1917,
Asteromyia carbonifera (Black Blister Gall Midge) [larvae form blister galls on leaves, 'black' refers to the color of the midge rather than the galls] Flt1917 AOS1905, Asteromyia convoluta [larvae form apical bud galls with loose masses of developing leaves] Flt1917, Lasioptera solidaginis [larvae form glodoid galls on stems of such goldenrods as S. canadensis and S. juncea] AOS1905, Rhopalomyia anthophila [larvae form small galls among flowerheads that are cylindrical and hairy] AOS1905, Rhopalomyia bulbula [larvae form cylindrical galls on underground root stalks] Flt1917, Rhopalomyia hirtipes [larvae form galls on underground root stalks, especially on early-blooming goldenrods like S. juncea] AOS1905, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Goldenrod Bunch Gall Midge) [larvae form galls from terminal buds that are surrounded by clusters of deformed leaves] AOS1905, Rhopalomyia thompsoni [larvae form fleshy ovoid galls on roots] Flt1917, Schizomyia racemicola [larvae form small spheroid galls among flowerheads] AOS1905; Tephritidae: Eurosta solidaginis (Goldenrod Ball Gall Midge) [maggots form globoid galls on stems] Flt1917 Msh2006, Eutreta novaeboracensis [maggots live in rhizomes] Msh2006, Eutreta sparsa [maggots cause fusiform galls to develop on roots] Flt1917, Trupanea actinobola Msh2006

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Miridae: Ilnacora malina [found in moist shaded situations] Kn1941, Lopidea media (Goldenrod Plant Bug) MM1980 Wat1928, Lygus lineolaris (Tarnished Plant Bug) [polyphagous] MM1980 WHM1983, Lygus rubroclarus WHM1983, Lygus vanduzeei WHM1983, Plagiognathus politus flaveolus Wat1928, Plagiognathus politus politus Kn1941, Polymerus flavocostatus Kn1941, Polymerus venaticus [found in thickets & dense growth of open situations] WHM1983 Wat1928, Slaterocoris atratus [found in moist exposed or partially shaded places] Wat1928, Slaterocoris breviatus Kn1941, Slaterocoris stygicus [found in moist exposed or partially shaded places] Wat1928; Pentatomidae: Acrosternum hilaris (Green Stink Bug) [polyphagous] Rid2009, Cosmopepla lintneriana [polyphagous] Rid2009, Euschistus servus [polyphagous] Rid2009, Euschistus variolaria [polyphagous] Rid2009, Holcostethus limbolarius [polyphagous] Rid2009, Homaemus aeneifrons aeneifrons [adults feed on developing seeds] Lat1964, Trichopepla semivittata Rid2009; Tingidae: Corythucha marmorata (Goldenrod Lace Bug) Crw2004 MM1980

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Acuticauda solidaginifoliae [found on leaves, which are folded along their midribs to become pod-like] HF1931 BE2013, Cachryphora canadensis [found in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, & Ontario] BE2013, Cachryphora imbricaria [found in North Carolina] BE2013, Illinoia goldamaryae [found on young growth, distributed in E USA & Canada] BE2013, Pemphigus brevicornis HF1931, Prociphilus erigeronensis [feeds on the roots of many herbaceous plants in the Asteraceae, Poaceae, & Fabaceae; widely distributed in the USA, also found in Ontario] BE2013, Uroleucon ambrosiae (Brown Ambrosia Aphid) [possible misidentification of aphid species, which is usually found on ragweed] Crw2004 HF1931 Pp1965 RB1965, Uroleucon caligatum [found in NE USA & SE Canada] BE2013, Uroleucon chrysanthemi HF1931, Uroleucon erigeronense [syn. Uroleucon erigeronensis] HF1931 Pp1965, Uroleucon gravicorne [found in NE & north-central USA, including Illinois] HF1931 BE2013 Pp1965, Uroleucon lanceolatum [this aphid is found in NE USA & SE Canada] BE2013, Uroleucon luteolum [found in E USA & Canada] BE2013 Pp1965, Uroleucon nigrotibium [found in North Carolina & Michigan] BE2013 Pp1965, Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum (Red Goldenrod Aphid) [distributed in E USA & SE Canada, including Wisconsin] BE2013 RB1965, Uroleucon pieloui [found on goldenrods, especially the more pubescent species; this aphid is distributed in E USA & Canada] BE2013, Uroleucon rudbeckiae (Golden Glow Aphid) [possible misidentification of aphid] HF1931 Pp1965; Cecropidae:
Aphrophora gelida (Boreal Spittlebug) [host plants of nymphs only; this spittlebug is found in Canada, Appalachian Mountains, & North Carolina] Hm1982, Philaronia canadensis [host plants of adults; this spittlebug is found in Ontario & South Carolina along river bottoms & lake shores] Hm1982; Cicadellidae: Empoasca erigeron [polyphagous] DD2010, Scaphoideus nigrellus [found in lowland areas] Dlg1948; Diaspididae: Aonidomytilus solidaginis (Goldenrod Scale) [males are found on leaves; this insect occurs in SE USA as far north as Maryland & Tennessee; species in the Asteraceae are the most typical hosts] SN2014, Rhizaspidiotus dearnessi (Dearness Scale) [found on plant crowns & stems, sometimes below the soil surface; mostly species in the Asteraceae are hosts of this insect; it is widely distributed in the USA, also occurring in Ontario] SN2014; Membracidae: Acutalis tartarea Den1952, Archasia belfragei [polyphagous] Den1952, Campylenchia latipes [polyphagous] Den1952 Msh2006, Ceresa bubalus (Buffalo Treehopper) [polyphagous] Den1952, Entylia bactriana [polyphagous] Den1952, Entylia carinata Msh2006, Hadrophallus borealis [polyphagous] Den1952, Hadrophallus constans [polyphagous] Den1952, Publilia concava [polyphagous] Den1952 Fnk1917, Stictocephala albescens [polyphagous] Den1952, Stictocephala basalis [polyphagous] Den1952, Stictocephala diceros [polyphagous] Den1952, Stictocephala taurina [polyphagous] Den1952; Pseudococcidae: Chorizococcus psoraleae [found on root crown; a Psoralea sp. is a host plant in California; also found in Maryland & Tennessee where goldenrod is a host plant] SN2014, Hypogeococcus barbarae (Rau Mealybug) [feeds on roots, this insect has been found in NE USA] SN2014, Pseudococcus sorghiellus (Trochanter Mealybug) [polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in eastern USA] SN2014, Spilococcus geraniae (Geranium Mealybug) [found on leaf undersides & leaf axils, polyphagous; this insect has been found in New York, California, & Bristish Columbia; Herb Robert was observed as a host plant in New York] SN2014

Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, & Sawflies)
Tenthredinidae: Pachyprotasis rapae [larvae feed on foliage, polyphagous] Sm2006

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Arctiidae: Phragmatobia fuliginosa (Ruby Tiger Moth) [polyphagous, found in northern IL] Cv2005; Bucculatricidae: Bucculatrix angustata Ndm1928; Coleophoridae: Coleophora annulicola [leaf-miner] Ndm1928; Gelechiidae: Dichomeris flavocostella (Cream-edged Dichomeris Moth) [this leaf-folding moth is found in fields; syn. Trichotaphe flavocostella] Cv2005 Msh2006, Dichomeris juncidella [this leaf-folding moth is found in fields; Loeffler refers to information from Hodges (1986)] Lf1994, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Goldenrod Gall Moth) [larvae produce spindle-shaped galls on stems] Cv2005 Msh2006, Scrobipalpula artemisiella (Wormseed Webworm) [larvae mine leaf tips] Ndm1928 Mar1916, Scrobipalpula sacculicola [leaf-miner] Ndm1928; Geometridae: Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria (Blackberry Looper) [larvae feed on flowers] Wg2005, Eupithecia miserulata (Common Pug) [larvae feed on flowers] Wg2005, Eusarca confusaria (Confused Eusarca) Cv2005 Wg2005, Pleuroprucha insulsaria (Common Tan Wave) [larvae feed on flowers, polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005, Synchlora aerata (Wavy-Lined Emerald) [larvae feed on flowers] Wg2005, Xanthotype urticaria (False Crocus Geometer) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Gracillariidae: Cremastobombycia solidaginis [larvae are leaf-miners] Mic2010 Ndm1928; Lycaenidae: Chlosyne nycteis (Silvery Checkerspot) Bar1999; Noctuidae: Catabena lineolata (Fine-Lined Sallow) Cv2005, Condica videns
(White-Dotted Groundling) [syn. Platysenta videns, larvae feed on flowers] Cv2005, Ctenoplusia oxygramma (Sharp-Stigma Looper Moth) [syn. Agrapha oxygramma] Cv2005, Cucullia asteroides (The Asteroid) [larvae feed on flowers] Cv2005 Wg2005, Cucullia convexipennis (Brown-Hooded Owlet) [larvae feed on flowers] Cv2005 Wg2005, Eupsilia devia (Lost Sallow) Cv2005, Leuconycta diphteroides (Green Leuconycta) Cv2005, Melanchra assimilis (Black Arches) [larvae often found on flowers, polyphagous] Wg2005, Palthis angulalis (Dark-Spotted Palthis) [larvae feed on leaves, flowers, & fruit] Wg2005, Pseudeustrotia carneola (Pink-Barred Pseudeustrotia) [syn. Lithacodia carneola] Cv2005, Pseudoplusia includens (Soybean Looper Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Schinia nundina (Goldenrod Flower Moth) [larvae feed on flowers & developing seeds] Cv2005 Wg2005, Trichordestra legitima (Striped Garden Caterpillar) [larvae feed on flowers, polyphagous] Wg2005; Pyralidae: Anania funebris Cv2005 Msh2006; Tischeriidae: Astrotischeria solidagonifoliella [larvae are blotch leaf-miners] Mic2010 Ndm1928; Tortricidae: Choristoneura parallela (Spotted Fireworm) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Epiblema desertana [larvae feed mainly in stems] Mlr1987, Epiblema obfuscana [larvae bore through stems] Mlr1987, Epiblema scudderiana (Goldenrod Gall Moth) [larvae produce ellipsoid galls on stems] Flt1917 Mlr1987 Msh2006, Eucosma cataclystiana (Solidago Eucosma) [larvae feed in root stalks] Mlr1987, Eucosma derelicta (Derelict Eucosma) [larvae feed in root stalks] Mlr1987, Eucosma dorsisignatana (Triangle-backed Eucosma) [larvae feed on roots] Cv2005 Mlr1987, Eucosma similiana [larvae feed on root stalks] Mlr1987, Eucosma vagana [larvae feed on roots] Mlr1987, Grapholita eclipsana (Solidago Root Moth) [according to Miller, this moth feeds on Amorpha spp., in spite of the common name] Mlr1987, Phaneta formosana (Beautiful Phaneta) [larvae feed in terminal growth] Mlr1987, Phaneta ochroterminana (Buff-tipped Phaneta) [larvae feed on flowerheads] Mlr1987, Phaneta olivaceana (Olivaceous Phaneta) [larvae bore into stems, Solidago flexicaulis may be the only host] Mlr1987, Phaneta radiatana [larvae bore through stems] Mlr1987, Phaneta raracana (Reddish Phaneta) Mlr1987, Platynota idaeusalis (Tufted Apple Bud Moth) Crw2004, Sonia canadana (Canadian Sonia) [larvae feed in root stalks] Mlr1987

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers)
Acrididae: Hesperotettix viridis (Meadow Purple-striped Grasshopper) VK1985, Melanoplus angustipennis (Narrow-winged Sand Grasshopper) VK1985, Melanoplus confusus (Little Pasture Grasshopper) Wy1994, Melanoplus borealis (Northern Grasshopper) [this grasshopper is often found in moist meadows] BHW2008, Melanoplus scudderi (Scudder's Short-winged Grasshopper) VK1985

Phasmatodea (Walkingsticks)
Diapheromeridae: Manomera blatchleyi (Blatchley's Walkingstick) Arm2006 VK1985

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