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Insects Feeding
on these Plants
:
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Salix spp.
(Willows) [Salicaceae]
(Observations are from Hart & Gleason, Vestal, Milne & Milne, DeLong, Arnett & Jacques, Stannard, Dmitriev & Dietrich, Barnes, Clark et al., Microlep website, Knight, Yanega, Hottes & Frison, Rider, Wagner, Thomas, Marshall, Bouseman & Sternburg, Bouseman et al., Covell, MacRae, Felt, Cranshaw, Needham et al., Aldrich & Osten-Sacken, Smith, Blackman & Eastop, Wheeler et al., Watson, Harms & Grodowitz, Hamilton, Opler & Krizek, Miller, Pepper, Robinson & Bradley, O'Brien & Anderson, Spencer & Steyskal, Majka et al., Panzer et al., ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Buprestidae: Agrilus obsoletoguttatus [larvae bore through wood of dead trees] Mcr1991, Agrilus politus (Common Willow Agrilus) [larvae bore through twigs & young shoots, forming galls] Crw2004, Chrysobothris femorata (Flat-Headed Apple Tree Borer) AJ1981, Descarpentriesina cyanipes (Eastern Poplar Buprestid) Msh2006, Descarpentriesina thureura Mcr1991; Cerambycidae: Gracilia minuta [larvae bore through dead branches] Ya1996, Knulliana cincta cincta [larvae bore through dry dead branches] Ya1996, Oberea caseyi [oligophagous] Ya1996, Oberea schaumi (Cottonwood Twig Borer) MM1980, Parandra brunnea (Aberrant Wood Borer) Crw2004, Plectrodera scalator (Cottonwood Borer) [larvae bore into wood of lower trunks & roots] Vst1913 Ya1996 Crw2004, Pogonocherus parvulus Ya1996, Saperda calcarata (Poplar Borer) [larvae bore into wood of live & dying trees] Msh2006 Ya1996, Saperda inornata (Poplar Gall Saperda) [forms small galls on branches of living trees] Ya1996, Saperda mutica [larvae bore into wood of dead shrubs] Ya1996, Saperda populnea moesta (Eastern Gall Saperda) [forms small galls on branches of living trees] Ya1996, Xylotrechus annosus annosus [larvae bore through wood of dead & dying shrubs] Ya1996; Chrysomelidae: Altica bimarginata Clk2004, Altica foliacea (Apple Flea Beetle) [adults & larvae feed on foliage] Crw2004, Calligrapha multipunctata Clk2004 Msh2006, Chrysomela interrupta Vst1913, Chrysomela knabi (American Willow Leaf Beetle) [= early references of Chrysomela lapponica] HG1907 MM1980, Chrysomela scripta (Cottonwood Leaf Beetle) HG1907 Msh2006 Vst1913, Crepidodera browni Clk2004, Crepidodera decora Clk2004, Crepidodera digna Clk2004, Crepidodera longula 
Clk2004, Crepidodera luminosa Clk2004, Cryptocephalus leuteolus Clk2004, Disconycha alternata (Striped Willow Flea Beetle) Clk2004 HG1907 Msh2006 Vst1913, Disonycha pensylvanica [feeds on buds during spring] HG1907 Vst1913, Disonycha pluriligata Clk2004, Gonioctena notmani Clk2004, Metachroma angustulum Clk2004 HG1907 Vst1913 Clk2004, Pachybrachis bivittatus [larvae feed on dead & dying leaves] Clk2004, Paria quadriguttata [willows are preferred host plants] Clk2004, Plagiodera versicolora (Imported Willow Leaf Beetle) [larvae skeletonize leaves; found in E. USA & Canada, introduced into North America from Europe] Msh2006 HG2009 Crw2004, Zeugophora puberula Clk2004, Zeugophora scutellaris Clk2004; Curculionidae: Acalyptus carpini [found in Canada & E. USA as far south as Kansas & Washington, D.C.] HG2009 MAM2007, Cryptorhynchus lapathi (Poplar & Willow Borer) [larvae bore through bark, adults are found on twigs] Crw2004 Msh2006, Dorytomus imbecillus OA1996, Ellescus ephippiatus [this insect is widely distributed; syn. Tachyerges ephippiatus] MAM2007, Isochnus sequensi [this Eurasian insect is found in NE USA & SE Canada; syn. Isochnus populicola] MAM2007, Phyllobius oblongus (European Snout Weevil) [polyphagous; adults feed on leaves of trees, larvae feed on roots of other plants] MAM2007, Polydrusus cervinus [polyphagous; adults feed on leaves of trees, larvae feed on roots of other plants; this Eurasian insect is found in NE USA & SE Canada] MAM2007, Polydrusus impressifrons (Pale Green Weevil) [introduced into N. America from Europe] Msh2006, Polydrusus sericeus (Green Immigrant Leaf Weevil) [polyphagous; adults feed on leaves of trees & shrubs, larvae feed on roots of other plants; syn. Polydrusus formosus] MAM2007, Rhynchaenus rufipes (Willow Flea Weevil) [syn. Rynchaenus rufipes, adults feed on leaves, larvae mine leaves] Crw2004 Msh2006; Scarbaeidae: Popillia japonica (Japenese Beetle) [polyphagous] Crw2004; Scolytidae: Lymantor decipiens [this insect is found in NE & north-central USA, & SE Canada] MAM2007

Diptera (Flies)
Agromyzidae: Agromyza isolata [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; found in Pennsylvania & Minnesota] SS1986, Hexomyza salicis [larvae form galls; found in Massachusetts] SS1986, Hexomyza simplicoides [larvae form ovoid twig galls; found in New York & Ohio] SS1986, Hexomyza winnemanae [larvae form twig galls; found in Maryland & Ontario] SS1986; Cecidomyiidae: Asphondylia salictaria [larvae found on twigs] Flt1907, Dasineura salicifolia [larvae form galls on leaves] Flt1907, Rabdophaga salicis (Willow Stem Gall Midge) [larvae form stem-galls on small willows] AOS1905, Rabdophaga salicisbatatas (Willow Potato Gall Midge) [larvae form galls on twigs] AOS1905, Rabdophaga strobiloides (Willow Conegall Midge) [larvae form large conical galls on tips of branches] Crw2004 Msh2006

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Miridae: Agnocoris rubicundus Wat1928, Atractotomus rubidus [found on dense growth of young trees along streams] Kn1941 WHM1983 Wat1928, Ceratocapsus incisus [polyphagous] Kn1941 Wat1928, Ceratocapsus pumila [polyphagous] Kn1941, Lopidea salicis (Willow Plant Bug) MM1980 WHM1983, Lygidea obscura WHM1983, Lygidea salicis WHM1983, Lygocoris atritylus Kn1941, Monosynamma bohemanni Kn1941, Orthotylus dorsalis Kn1941, Orthotylus modestus immaculatus [found on dense growth along streams] Wat1928, Orthotylus modestus modestus [found on dense young growth along streams] Wat1928, Orthotylus rossi Kn1941, Orthotylus viridis WHM1983 Wat1928, Phytocoris canadensis WHM1983, Pilophorus brunneus Kn1941 WHM1983, Plagiognathus tinctus WHM1983; Pentatomidae: Brochymena quadripustulata (Four-humped Stink Bug) [polyphagous] Rid2009, Chlorochroa uhleri [polyphagous] Rid2009, Parabrochymena arborea [polyphagous] Rid2009; Tingidae: Physatocheila plexus Msh2006

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Aphis farinosa (Small Willow Aphid) [found on young shoots] HF1931 Th1877 BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965, Aphis salicariae (Willow Aphid) [willow is a winter host] AJ1981, Cavariella aegopodii (Carrot-Willow Aphid) [found on young leaves & catkins of willows, migrating during the summer to herbaceous plants in the Apiaceae] Crw2004 HF1931 BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965, Cavariella hendersoni Pp1965, Cavariella konoi [found on willows as primary hosts, migrating during the summer to herbaceous plants in the Apiaceae] BE2013, Cavariella pastinacae [found on leaves & new growth of willows, migrating during the summer to herbaceous plants in the Apiaceae] BE2013 Pp1965, Cavariella salicis [found on willows as primary hosts, migrating during the summer to herbaceous plants in the Apiaceae] BE2013, Cavariella theobaldi [found on leaves & new growth of willows, migrating during the summer to herbaceous plants in the Apiaceae] BE2013 Pp1965, Chaitophorus longipes Pp1965, Chaitophorus nigrae [found on leaves & petioles] BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965, Chaitophorus nigricentrus [found on 2nd-year growth of willows; this aphid has been found in Ontario & Pennsylvania] BE2013, Chaitophorus pusillus [found on leaves] BE2013 Pp1965, Chaitophorus viminalis (Small Black & Green Willow Aphid) [found on the leaves & young growth of narrow-leaved willows] Crw2004 MM1980 BE2013 RB1965, Chaitophorus viminicola [this aphid has been found in E USA & Ontario] BE2013 Pp1965, Fullawaya bradleyi [found on subterranean parts of stems; this aphid has been observed in Ontario] BE2013, Fullawaya flocculosa HF1931, Fullawaya terricola [found on roots, this aphid has been observed in Illinois & Pennsylvania] BE2013 HF1931, Macrosiphum californicum [found on young growth, this aphid is distributed in NE USA & Canada; syn. Macrosiphum californica] HF1931 BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965, Plocamaphis flocculosa Pp1965, Pterocomma bicolor (Reddish Brown Willow Aphid) Pp1965 RB1965, Pterocomma populifoliae (Reddish Brown Poplar Aphid) HF1931 Pp1965, Pterocomma salicis (Black Willow Aphid) [found on 2-yr. old twigs of willows; this Eurasian aphid has been found in Massachusetts & Ontario] BE2013 RB1965, Pterocomma smithiae (Black Willow Aphid) [found on twigs of poplar & willow; observed in Massachusetts, Missouri, Pennsylvania, & Ontario] HF1931  BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965 Crw2004, Rhodobium porosus
HF1931, Tuberolachnus salignus (Giant Willow Aphid) [found on stems & branches of willows; observed in Illinois & SE Canada] Crw2004 HF1931 Msh2006 BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965; Cercopidae: Aphrophora alni (European Alder Spittlebug) [eaten by both adults & nymphs] Hm1982, Aphrophora salicis (European Willow Spittlebug) [introduced into New England from Europe] Hm1982, Clastoptera obtusa (Alder Spittlebug) [fed on by adults only] Hm1982, Neophilaenus lineatus (Lined Spittlebug) [host plants of adults] Hm1982; Cicadellidae: Davisonia americana Dlg1948, Davisonia major Dlg1948, Empoasca andresia DD2010, Empoasca fabae [polyphagous] DD2010, Eratoneura macra DD2010, Erythridula rufostigmosa DD2010, Erythroneura rosa DD2010, Graphocephala hieroglyphica Dlg1948, Idiocerus alternatus Dlg1948, Idiocerus nervatus Dlg1948, Idiocerus pallidus Dlg1948, Idiocerus ramentosus Dlg1948, Kybos albolinea DD2010, Kybos patula DD2010; Diaspididae: Chionaspis longiloba (Long-lobed Scurfy Scale) [this insect is found in E USA & Oregon] SN2014, Diaspidiotus gigas (Eurasian Willow Scale) [this insect is found in SE Canada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin, some western states in the USA, & Eurasia] SN2014, Diaspidiotus juglansregiae (English Walnut Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in the USA] SN2014, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San Jose Scale) [usually found on bark, polyphagous, although preferring woody species in the Rosaceae; this insect is widely distributed; syn. Comstockaspis perniciosa, syn. Quadraspidiotus perniciosus] SN2014, Hemiberlesia neodiffinis (False Diffinis Scale) [polyphagous, this insect occurs in E USA] SN2014, Lepidosaphes ulmi (Oystershell Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in the USA, S Canada, & Eurasia] SN2014, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Gloomy Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous; this insect occurs in E USA & California] SN2014; Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcus sorghiellus (Trochanter Mealybug) [polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in eastern USA] SN2014

Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, & Sawflies)
Argidae: Arge cyra [larvae feed on leaves] Sm2006, Arge onerosa [larvae feed on leaves] Sm2006, Arge salicis [larvae feed on leaves] Sm2006;  Cephidae: Janus abbreviatus (Willow Shoot Sawfly) [larvae bore into young twigs] Sm2006; Cimbicidae: Cimbex americana (Elm Sawfly) [larvae feed on leaves, polyphagous] Msh2006 Sm2006; Tenthredinidae: Amauronematus amentorum [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Euura spp. [form galls on twigs & stems] Crw2004, Nematus calais Msh2006, Nematus limbatus [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Nematus oligospilus [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Nematus salicisodoratus [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Nematus ventralis (Willow Sawfly) [larvae feed on foliage] Crw2004 Sm2006, Pontania gracilis [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006,
Pontania proxima (Willow Redgall Sawfly) [forms reddish bean-shaped galls] Crw2004, Pontania s-pomum (Willow Gall Sawfly) [forms yellow or red round galls] Crw2004, Pristiphora acidovalva [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Pristiphora cincta [larvae feed on foliage, polyphagous] Sm2006,  Pristiphora sycophanta [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006,Trichiocampus viminalis (Hairy Poplar Sawfly) Crw2004

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Arctiidae: Halysidota tessellaris (Banded Tussock Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Haploa clymene (Clymene Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Hypercompe scribonia (Giant Leopard Moth) [syn. Ecpantheria scribonia, polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005; Coleophoridae: Coleophora pruniella (Cherry Casebearer Moth) Ndm1928; Geometridae:
Cabera erythemaria (Yellow-dusted Cream Moth) Cv2005 Wg2005, Digrammia subminiata (Dark-waved Angle) Pnz2006, Eupithecia miserulata (Common Pug) [polyphagous, larvae feed on flowers] Cv2005 Wg2005, Lobophora nivigerata (Powdered Bigwig) Cv2005, Pero hubneraria (Hubner's Pero) Cv2005, Pleuroprucha insulsaria (Common Tan Wave) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Protitame virginalis (Virgin Moth) Wg2005, Sicya macularia (Sharp-lined Yellow) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Gracillariidae: Caloptilia stigmatella [larvae are leaf-miners or leaf-rollers] Ndm1928, Marmara salictella [larvae are leaf-miners] Ndm1928, Micrurapteryx salicifoliella [larvae are blotch leaf-miners] Cv2005 Mic2010 Ndm1928, Phyllonorycter salicifoliella (Willow Leaf Blotch Miner) Ndm1928, Phyllonorycter scudderella [larvae are tentiform leaf-miners] Mic2010 Ndm1928; Heliozelidae: Coptodisca saliciella [larvae are leaf-miners] Ndm1928; Hesperiidae: Erynnis icelus (Dreamy Duskywing) Bar1999 Bou2006 Msh2006 Wg2005 OK1984; Lasiocampidae: Phyllodesma americana (Lappet Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Limacodidae: Euclea delphinii (Spiny Oak Slug) [polyphagous, found in southern IL] Cv2005, Phobetron pithecium (Hag Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Prolimacodes badia (Skiff Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Lycaenidae: Satyrium acadicum (Acadian Hairstreak) [found mostly in NE Illinois] BS2001 Msh2006 OK1984, Satyrium liparops strigosum (Striped Hairstreak) [polyphagous] BS2001; Lymantriidae: Dasychira vagans (Variable Tussock Moth) Msh2006, Lymantria dispar (Gypsy Moth) [intro. into N. America from abroad, polyphagous] Cv2005; Lyonetiidae: Lyonetia saliciella [larvae are leaf-miners] Ndm1928, Paraleucoptera albella (Cottonwood Leafminer) [syn. Leucoptera albella] Ndm1928; Nepticulidae: Nepticula pallida [larvae are leaf-miners, syn. Stigmella pallida] Ndm1928; Noctuidae: Acronicta americana (American Dagger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Acronicta connecta (Connected Dagger Moth) Cv2005 Wg2005, Acronicta dactylina (Fingered Dagger Moth) Cv2005, Acronicta lepusculina (Cottonwood Dagger Moth) Cv2005 Wg2005, Acronicta oblinita (Smeared Dagger Moth) [polyphagous, found in central USA, E. USA, & Canada] Cv2005 HG2009, Catocala amatrix (The Sweetheart) Cv2005, Catocala briseis (Briseis Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala cara (Darling Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala concumbens (Sleepy Underwing) Cv2005 Msh2006, Catocala junctura (Joined Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala parta (Mother Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala relicta (White Underwing) Cv2005 Wg2005, Catocala unijuga (Once-married Underwing) Cv2005, Colobochyla interpuncta (Swamp Belle) [this moth is found in wetlands] Pnz2006, Euplexia benesimilis (American Angle Shades) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Harrisimemna trisignata (Harris' Three-spot) [polyphagous] Wg2005, Lycophotia phyllophora (Lycophotia Moth) [polyphagous] Pnz2006, Melanchra assimilis (Black Arches) [larvae often feed on flowers, polyphagous] Wg2005, Melanchra picta (Zebra Caterpillar) [larvae feed on leaves, polyphagous] Wg2005, Nycteola frigidana (Frigid Owlet) Cv2005, Oligia illocata (Wandering Brocade) Cv2005, Panopoda carneicosta (Brown Panopoda) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Pyrrhia exprimens (Purple-lined Sallow) [larvae prefer to feed on flowers, buds, & fruit; polyphagous] Wg2005, Raphia frater (The Brother) Cv2005 Wg2005, Scoliopteryx libatrix (The Herald) Cv2005, Wg2005; Notodontidae: Clostera albosigma (Sigmoid Prominent) Cv2005, Clostera apicalis (Toothed Clostera) Wg2005, Clostera inclusa (Angle-lined Prominent) Cv2005, Furcula cinerea (Gray Furcula) Cv2005, Furcula occidentalis (Western Furcula) Wg2005, Notodonta scitipennis (Fanned Willow Prominent) Msh2006, Pheosia rimosa (Black-rimmed Prominent) [found in northern IL] Cv2005 Msh2006 Wg2005, Schizura concinna (Red-humped Caterpillar) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Schizura unicornis (Unicorn Caterpillar) [polyphagous] Wg2005; Nymphalidae: Limenitis archippus (Viceroy) [preferred host plants] AJ1981 Bar1999 BS2001 Crw2004 Msh2006 Wg2005, Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Red-spotted Purple) [larvae feed on leaves] AJ1981 Bar1999 BS2001, Nymphalis antiopa (Mourning Cloak) Bar1999 BS2001 Crw2004 Msh2006 Wg2005, Nymphalis vau-album j-album (Compton Tortoiseshell) [found in N Illinois] BS2001 OK1984; Pyralidae: Nephopterix basilaris Msh2006; Saturniidae: Actias luna (Luna Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Automeris io (Io Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005, Hemileuca nevadensis (Nevada Buck Moth) [found west of IL] Cv2005, Hyalophora cecropia (Cecropia Moth) [polyphagous] Crw2004 Cv2005 Wg2005; Sesiidae: Paranthrene tabaniformis (European Poplar Clearwing) [larvae bore into branches] Msh2006, Sesia tibialis (Cottonwood Crown Borer Moth) [larvae bore into lower trunk & roots] Crw2004; Sphingidae: Pachysphinx modesta (Big Poplar Sphinx) Cv2005 Msh2006 Wg2005, Paonias myops (Small-eyed Sphinx) Cv2005 Msh2006, Smerinthus cerisyi (One-eyed Sphinx) Cv2005 Msh2006 Wg2005, Smerinthus jamaicensis (Twin-spotted Sphinx) [polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005, Sphinx gordius (Gordian Sphinx) Wg2005, Sphinx luscitiosa (Clemen's Sphinx) Pnz2006; Tortricidae: Ancylis diminutana Mlr1987, Apotomis capreana (Sallow Apotomis) [larvae feed on leaves] Mlr1987, Apotomis deceptana (Deceptive Apotomis) Mlr1987, Apotomis infida [larvae feed within rolled leaves] Mlr1987, Apotomis removana (Green Aspen Leafroller) [larvae feed within rolled leaves] Mlr1987, Archips purpurana (Omnivorous Leafroller Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Cydia gallaesaliciana (Willow Gall Moth) [larvae form stem galls] Mlr1987, Epinotia criddleana [larvae feed within buds & tied leaves; this moth is found mostly north & NE of Illinois, it also occurs in some western states] Mlr1987, Epinotia transmissana (Walker's Epinotia) [this moth is found mostly east & north of Illinois] Mlr1987, Gypsonoma fasciolana [larvae feed within rolled leaves; this moth is found mostly north of Illinois] Mlr1987, Gypsonoma salicicolana [larvae feed within rolled leaves] Mlr1987, Olethreutes fasciatana (Banded Olethreutes) [larvae feed within rolled leaves] Mlr1987, Orthotaenia undulana (Dusky Leafroller Moth) [larvae feed in rolled leaves & on terminal growth] Mlr1987, Pseudexentera oregonana [larvae feed within rolled leaves; this moth is found mostly east of Illinois] Mlr1987, Pseudosciaphila duplex (Poplar Leafroller Moth) [larvae feed within rolled leaves] Mlr1987, Sparganothis sulfureana (Sparganothis Leafroller) Crw2004

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers)
Tettigoniidae: Microcentrum retinervis (Angular-winged Katydid) [polyphagous] MM1980

Thysanoptera (Thrips)
Thripidae: Mycterothrips betulae [feeds on leaves] St1968, Pseudothrips inequalis [feeds on leaves] St1968

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