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Insects Feeding
on this Plant
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Phleum pratense
(Timothy) [Poaceae]
(Observations are from Vance, Vaurie, Clark et al., Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta., Microleps website, Knight, Rider, Wagner, Bouseman et al., Covell, Needham et al., Felt, Blackman & Eastop, Watson, Hamilton, Gangwere, Vickery & Kevan, Opler & Krizek, Robinson & Bradley, Spencer & Steyskal, Braun, Majka et al., Wilbur, Natural History Museum, ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Chrysomelidae: Chaetocnema pulicaria Clk2004, Myochrons denticollis Clk2004, Oulema melanopus Clk2004; Curculionidae: Sphenophorus coesifrons Vau1983, Sphenophorus destructor Vau1983, Sphenophorus minimus Vau1983, Sphenophorus parvulus Vau1983, Sphenophorus venatus venatus (Hunting Billbug) [found in NE USA, SE Canada, & Minnesota] Vau1983 MAM2007, Sphenophorus zeae (Timothy Billbug) [this insect is widely distributed in the USA & SE Canada] Vau1983 MAM2007

Diptera (Flies)
Agromyzidae: Cerodontha angulata [larvae are leaf-miners] Ndm1928, Cerodontha dorsalis (Grass Sheath Miner) [larvae are leaf-miners, pupating in sheaths; widespread] Ndm1928 SS1986, Cerodontha incisa [larvae are leaf-miners; widespread in the northern half of USA, also in Canada] SS1986

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Miridae: Capsus ater Kn1941, Leptoterna dolobrata (Meadow Plant Bug) [punctures grass stems, found in meadows] Kn1941 Wat1928, Stenodema trispinosa (Three-Spined Grass Bug) [found in meadows] Wat1928, Stenotus binotatus (Two-Spotted Grass Bug) [introduced into N. America from Europe, found in meadows] Kn1941 Wat1928; Pentatomidae: Coenus delia Rid2009, Cosmopepla lintneriana Rid209, Euschistus servus Rid2009, Holcostethus limbolarius Rid2009, Hymenarcys nervosa Rid2009, Mormidea lugens Rid2009, Neottiglossa sulcifrons Rid2009

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Carolinaia rhois [found on leaf undersides of sumac shrubs, migrating during the summer to the inflorescences of various grasses] BE2013, Geoica utricularia [found on roots of grasses; this aphid was introduced from Eurasia into North America, including Illinois] BE2013, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Corn Leaf Aphid) RB1965, Rhopalosiphum padi (Bird Cherry & Oat Aphid) RB1965, Schizaphis graminum (Greenbug) RB1965, Schizaphis phlei [found in New Brunswick], Sipha elegans [found on grass leaves, often causing them to roll upward & develop yellow patches; this aphid has been found in Illinois, it also occurs in Eurasia] BE2013 RB1965, Sitobion avenae (English Grain Aphid) RB1965; Cercopidae:
Neophilaenus lineatus (Lined Spittlebug) [host plant of both nymphs & adults] Hm1982; Cicadellidae: Endria inimica (Painted Leafhopper) Wlb1954; Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus junceus (Juncus Mealybug) [feeds on roots; this insect is widely distributed in NE & north-central USA] SN2014, Heterococcus nudus (Naked Grass Mealybug) [found on the crown & underneath leaf sheaths of host plants; this insect is widely distributed in northern USA & California] SN2014


Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, & Sawflies)
Cephidae: Cephus cinctus (Grass-Stem Sawfly) [larvae bore through stems] Flt1917

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Arctiidae: Ctenucha virginica (Virginia Ctenucha) NHM2010; Elachistidae: Elachista illectella [larvae are leaf-miners of many grass species; this moth is found throughout NE USA & Ontario; syn. Cosmiotes illectella] Cv2005 Mic2010 Br1948 NHM2010; Hesperiidae: Thymelicus lineola (European Skipper) Bou2006 Wg2005 OK1984 NHM2010; Noctuidae: Anicla illapsa (Snowy Dart) NHM2010, Apamea devastator (Glassy Cutworm) NHM2010, Apamea sordens finitima (Bordered Apamea) Cv2005 NHM2010, Dargida diffusa (Wheathead Armyworm) NHM2010, Euxoa auxiliaris (Army Cutworm) [this insect is found mostly west of Illinois] NHM2010, Leucania pseudargyria (False Wainscot) Cv2005 NHM2010, Melanchra picta (Zebra Caterpillar) [polyphagous] NHM2010, Mesapamea fractilinea (Broken-Lined Brocade) [larvae bores through stems; syn. Oligia fractilinea] Cv2005 NHM2010, Mythimna unipuncta (True Armyworm) [syn. Pseudaletia unipuncta] NHM2010,
Nephelodes minians (Bronzed Cutworm) NHM2010, Papaipema nebris (Stalk Borer Moth) [polyphagous] NHM2010, Peridroma saucia (Variegated Cutworm) NHM2010, Plusia putnami (Putnam's Looper Moth) [this insect is found north of Illinois] NHM2010, Resapamea stipata (Four-lined Borer Moth) NHM2010, Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall Armyworm) NHM2010, Trichordestra lilacina (Aster Cutworm) [this insect is found north of Illinois; polyphagous] NHM2010; Oecophoridae: Gonioterma mistrella NHM2010; Pyralidae: Fissicrambus mutabilis (Changeable Grass-veneer Moth) NHM2010; Tortricidae: Clepsis clemensiana (Clemens' Clepsis) [larvae feed on leaves] NHM2010

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers)
Acrididae: Arphia sulphurea (Sulphur-winged Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961, Chloealtis conspersa (Sprinkled Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961, Camnula pellucida (Clear-winged Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961, Chloealtis conspersa (Sprinkled Grasshopper) [this grasshopper is found at edges of woods, hilly areas, & thickets] VK1985, Chortophaga viridifasciata (Green-striped Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961, Melanoplus bivittatus (Two-striped Grasshopper) [feeds on spikelets, field observations] Ggw1961, Melanoplus bruneri (Bruner's Spur-throated Grasshopper) VK1985, Melanoplus confusus (Little Pasture Grasshopper) [feeds on leaves, both field & lab observations] Ggw1961, Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper) [nymphs & adults feed on leaves & spikelets] Ggw1961 Wy1994, Melanoplus foedus (Striped Sand Grasshopper) Wy1994, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Migratory Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961, Spharagemon bolli (Boll's Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961, Spharagemon collare (Mottled Sand Grasshopper) [lab observations] Ggw1961; Tettigoniidae: Atlanticus testaceus (Protean Shieldback) [feeds on leaves & flowers, lab observations] Ggw1967, Conocephalus brevipennis (Short-winged Meadow Katydid) [feeds on dry spikelets, field observations] Ggw1961, Conocephalus strictus (Straight-lanced Meadow Katydid) [feeds on dry spikelets, field observations] Ggw1961, Neoconocephalus ensiger (Sword-bearing Conehead) [feeds on dry seeds, field observations] Ggw1961

Thysanoptera (Thrips)
Thripidae: Aptinothrips rufus [found on seedheads, observed in IL] Van1974

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