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Insects Feeding
on these Plants

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Helianthus spp.
(Sunflowers) [Asteraceae]
(Observations are from Dennis, Milne & Milne, Arnett & Jacques, Covell, Stannard, Vaurie, Knight, Hottes & Frison, Yanega, Funkhouser, Wagner, Marshall, Clark et al., Wyoming Agri. Exp. Sta., Bouseman & Sternburg, Miller, Cranshaw, Needham et al., Aldrich & Osten-Sacken, Felt, Blackman & Eastop, Wheeler et al., Marcovitch, Hamilton, Vickery & Kevan, Brust et al., Opler & Krizek, Pepper, Robinson & Bradley, O'Brien & Anderson, Charlet & Gavloski, Spencer & Steyskal, Panzer et al., ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Attelabidae: Haplorhynchites aeneus (Sunflower Head-clipping Weevil) [larvae feed in flowerheads, adults chew line of feeding punctures, causing flowerhead to droop & fall off] Crw2004 Msh2006 CG2011; Brentidae: Apion occidentale (Black Sunflower Stem Weevil) [adults feed on leaves & stems, larvae bore through petioles & stems, syn. Fallapion occidentale] CG2011; Cerambycidae: Dectes texanus (Sunflower Long-horned Beetle) [larvae bore through stems] CG2011, Mecas cana saturnina [larvae bore through stems, Great Plains region] Ya1996; Chrysomelidae: Brachypnoea clypealis Clk2004, Microrhopala rileyi Clk2004, Physonota helianthi Clk2004, Systena blanda (Pale-Striped Flea Beetle) [adults feed on foliage, larvae feed on roots] Crw2004, Trirhabda adela Clk2004, Zygogramma exclamationis (Sunflower Beetle) [adults & larvae feed on foliage] Crw2004 CG2011; Curculionidae: Baris strenua (Sunflower Root Weevil) [adults feed on leaves & stems, larvae feed on roots] CG2011, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Sunflower Stem Weevil) [adults feed on leaves & stems, larvae bore through stems & root crown] Crw2004 CG2011, Lixus concavus (Rhubarb Weevil) [larvae bore through stems] MM1980, Rodobaenus quinquepunctatus (Five-Spotted Billbug) Vau1983, Rhodobaenus tredecimpunctatus (Thirteen-Spotted Billbug) Vau1983, Smicronyx fulvus (Red Sunflower Seed Weevil) [larvae feed on seeds] OA1996 CG2011, Smicronyx incertus [this weevil is found as far east as Missouri & Manitoba] OA1996, Smicronyx sordidus (Gray Sunflower Seed Weevil) [larvae feed on seeds] OA1996 CG2011

Diptera (Flies)
Agromyzidae: Amauromyza maculosa [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; widespread] SS1986, Calycomyza frickiana [larvae are blotch leaf-miners; found in Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, & Virginia] SS1986, Liriomyza assimilis [larvae are leaf-miners; found in Illinois & Pennsylvania] SS1986, Melanagromyza splendida [larvae are stem-borers; found in Michigan, New York, & areas south] SS1986; Cecidomyiidae: Asphondylia helianthiglobulus (Sunflower Stem Gall Midge) [larvae form globoid or ovoid galls on stems, including those of H. giganteus and H. grosseserratus] AOS1905 Flt1917, Asphondylia rudbeckiaeconspicua (Coneflower Gall Midge) [larvae form galls on stems or buds] Flt1917, Contarinia schulzi (Sunflower Midge) [larvae develop in buds & flowerheads, causing club-shaped distortion of flowerheads] Crw2004 CG2011, Neolasioptera helianthi (Sunflower Seed Midge) [larvae are found in seeds] Flt1917, Neolasioptera thurstoni (Sunflower Stem Gall Midge) [larvae cause fusiform galls to develop on stems] Flt1917, Pilodiplosis helianthibulla (Sunflower Bullet Gall Midge) [larvae form small bullet-shaped galls on leaves] AOS1905 Flt1917; Tephritidae: Gymnocarena diffusa (Sunflower Receptacle Maggot) [larvae feed on receptacles & peduncles of flowerheads, adults feed from extrafloral nectaries of wild sunflowers] CG2011, Neotephritis finalis (Sunflower Seed Maggot) [larvae feed on florets & developing seeds of flowerheads] Crw2004 CG2011, Strauzia longipennis (Sunflower Maggot) [larvae bore through stems] Msh2006 CG2011

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Miridae: Ilnacora malina WHM1983, Ilnacora stalii (Dotted Green Plant Bug) Kn1941 WHM1983, Lygus lineolaris (Tarnished Plant Bug) CG2011, Plagiognathus nigronitens Kn1941, Polymerus basalis Kn1941

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Aphis carduella (Dogwood-Sunflower Aphid) [syn. Aphis helianthi] Pp1965 Crw2004 HF1931 RB1965 CG2011, Aphis debilicornis HF1931,  Aphis rumicis (Dock Aphid) [polyphagous] HF1931, Brachycaudus helichrysi (Leafcurl Plum Aphid) [curls leaves of plum trees, migrating during the summer to the stems & inflorescences of various herbaceous plants, especially in the Asteraceae] BE2013, Macrosiphum gei (Avens Aphid) [polyphagous] HF1931, Myzus persicae (Green Peach Aphid) [polyphagous] HF1931, Pleotrichophorus ohiensis [found on leaf undersides of a sunflower in Ohio] BE2013, Uroleucon ambrosiae (Brown Ambrosia Aphid) [possible misidentification of aphid] HF1931, Uroleucon helianthicola [found on sunflowers, especially wild perennial species; distributed in NE & north-central USA, including Illinois] BE2013 Pp1965, Uroleucon illini [includes all varieties of this aphid species; found on both wild & cultivated sunflowers; distributed in E USA & Canada, including Illinois] BE2013 Pp1965, Uroleucon illini illini HF1931, Uroleucon illini crudae HF1931, Uroleucon illini sangamonensis HF1931, Uroleucon rudbeckiae (Golden Glow Aphid) [possible misidentification of aphid] HF1931, Uroleucon rurale HF1931; 
Cercopidae: Clastoptera xanthocephala (Sunflower Spittlebug) [as far north as Ohio & Maine] Hm1982; Cicadellidae: Mesamia nigridorsum Pnz2006, Mesamia straminea [this leafhopper is found on sunflowers with rough leaves] Pnz2006; Diaspididae: Rhizaspidiotus dearnessi (Dearness Scale) [found on plant crowns & stems, sometimes below the soil surface; mostly species in the Asteraceae are hosts of this insect; it is widely distributed in the USA, also occurring in Ontario] SN2014; Membracidae: Acutalis tartarea Den1952, Campylenchia latipes [polyphagous] Den1952, Ceresa bubalus (Buffalo Treehopper) [polyphagous] Den1952, Entylia bactriana Fnk1917, Pubilia concava [polyphagous] Den1952, Stictocephala diceros [polyphagous] Den1952, Stictocephala lutea Den1952, Stictocephala taurina [polyphagous] Den1952, Tortistilus inermis [polyphagous] Den1952; Pseudococcidae: Phenacoccus solani (Solanum Mealybug) [found on lower leaves & roots, polyphagous; this insect has been found in Maryland & Virginia, although it occurs primarily in southern & western USA] SN2014, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Solenopsis Mealybug) [feeds on foliage & sometimes roots, polyphagous; widespread] SN2014

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Arctiidae: Estigmene acrea (Salt Marsh Moth) [widely distributed in North America] CG2011, Grammia arge (Arge Tiger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005,
Hypercompe scribonia (Giant Leopard Moth) [syn. Ecpantheria scribonia, polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005, Phragmatobia fuliginosa (Ruby Tiger Moth) [polyphagous, found in northern IL] Cv2005, Pyrrharctia isabella (Isabella Tiger Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Spilosoma virginica (Yellow Bear Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Cochylidae: Hysterosia birdana [larvae bore into roots, found east of IL] Cv2005; Crambidae: Frechinia helianthiales (Sunflower Leafminer) Ndm1928; Gelechiidae: Dichomeris flavocostella [syn. Trichotaphe flavocostella] Cv2005 Msh2006, Scrobipalpula artemisiella (Wormseed Webworm) [larvae mine leaves] Mar1916; Geometridae: Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria (Blackberry Looper) [larvae feed on flowers] Cv2005; Gracillariidae: Cremastobombycia ignota [larvae are leaf-miners] Ndm1928; Limacodidae: Acharia stimulea (Saddleback Caterpillar) [syn. Sibine stimulea, polyphagous, found in southern IL] Cv2005; Noctuidae: Autographa precationis (Common Looper) [polyphagous] Crw2004 Cv2005 Wg2005, Eupithecia miserulata (Common Pug) [larvae feed on flowers, polyphagous] Wg2005, Euplexia benesimilis (American Angle Shades) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Euxoa messoria (Dark-sided Cutworm) [larvae feed on stems & leaves of seedlings] CG2011, Euxoa ochrogaster (Red-backed Cutworm) [larvae feed on stems & leaves of seedlings] CG2011, Feltia jaculifera (Dingy Cutworm) [larvae feed on stems & leaves of seedlings, and later feed on flowerheads] CG2011, Ogdoconta cinereola (Common Pinkband) Cv2005, Papaipema cataphracta (Burdock Borer Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Papaipema maritima (Maritime Sunflower Borer Moth) [Helianthus giganteus is a host plant] Pnz2006, Papaipema necopina (Sunflower Borer Moth) Cv2005 Pnz2006, Papaipema rigida (Rigid Sunflower Borer Moth) [preferred host plants, found in northern IL] Cv2005, Plagiomimicus spumosum (Frothy Moth) [larvae feed on seeds; syn. Stibadium spumosum] Cv2005 Pnz2006; Nymphalidae:  Chlosyne gorgone carlota (Gorgone Checkerspot) [larvae feed on foliage, found in central & N Illinois] BS2001 OK1984, Chlosyne nycteis (Silvery Checkerspot) [sunflowers are preferred host plants] AJ1981 BS2001 Wg2005, Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady) [larvae feed on foliage, polyphagous] Crw2004 CG2011; Pyralidae: Homoeosoma electellum (Sunflower Moth) [larvae feed on florets & developing seeds, spinning webs around flowerheads] Crw2004 CG2011; Tortricidae: Cochylis hospes (Banded Sunflower Moth) [larvae feed on florets & developing seeds, syn. Phtheochroa hospes] Crw2004 CG2011, Eucosma bilineana Mlr1987, Eucosma sombreana [larvae feed in root stalks] Mlr1987, Pelochrista scintillana Mlr1987, Pelochrista womonana [larvae feed in roots] Mlr1987, Platynota flavedana (Variegated Leafroller) Crw2004, Suleima cinerodorsana [larvae bore through stems] Mlr1987, Suleima helianthana (Sunflower Bud Moth) [larvae feed in buds, stems, & receptacles of flowerheads] Mlr1987 CG2011

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers)
Acrididae: Camnula pellucida (Clear-winged Grasshopper) CG2011, Hesperotettix viridis (Meadow Purple-striped Grasshopper) VK1985, Melanoplus angustipennis (Narrow-winged Sand Grasshopper) VK1985, Melanoplus bivittatus (Two-striped Grasshopper) CG2011, Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper) CG2011, Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper) CG2011, Melanoplus flavidus (Yellowish Spur-throated Grasshopper) [this grasshopper is found in open sandy areas] VK1985, Melanoplus packardii (Packard's Grasshopper) [this grasshopper is found in open areas with heavier soil, including weedy roadsides & tallgrass prairie] Wy1994 BHW2008, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Migratory Grasshopper) CG2011, Sparagemon collare (Mottled Sand Grasshopper) [this grasshopper is found in open sandy areas] Wy1994 BHW

Thysanoptera (Thrips)
Thripidae: Heterothrips auranticornis [on flowers] St1968
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