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Insects Feeding
on these Plants
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Crataegus spp.
(Hawthorn) [Rosaceae]
(Observations are from Funkhouser, Hottes & Frison, Arnett & Jacques, Wagner, Bouseman & Sternburg, Yanega, Knight, Osborn & Drake, Milne & Milne, DeLong, Dmitriev & Dietrich, Barnes, Clark et al., Microleps website, Dennis, Rider, Marshall, Covell, MacRae, Felt, Needham et al., Aldrich & Osten-Sacken, Smith, Blackman & Eastop, Wheeler et al., Watson, Hamilton, Opler & Krizek, Miller, Pepper, Robinson & Bradley, Spencer & Steyskal, Majka et al., Cranshaw, ScaleNet)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
Buprestidae: Agrilus crataegi (Hawthorn Agrilus) Mcr1991; Cerambycidae: Saperda candida (Round-headed Appletree Borer) [bores through wood of live trees] Msh2006 Ya1996 Crw2004, Saperda cretata (Spotted Apple Tree Borer) [larvae bore through wood of living trees] Ya1996, Saperda fayi (Thorn-Limb Borer) [larvae bore through live branches, form galls on branches] Ya1996 Xylotrechus convergens [larvae bore through heartwood of dead trees] Ya1996; Chrysomelidae: Crepidodera violacea Clk2004, Physonota unipunctata [feeds on flowers & leaves, polyphagous] AJ1981; Curculionidae: Anthonomus nebulosus Msh2006, Anthonomus quadrigibbus (Apple Curculio) [this insect is widely distributed] Msh2006 MAM2007, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Plum Curculio) [feeds on fruits] Crw2004, Conotrachelus posticatus [polyphagous; this insect is found in E & central USA, SE & south-central Canada] MAM2007, Glyptobaris lecontei Msh2006, Lechriops oculata [polyphagous; this insect is found in E & central USA, SE & south-central Canada] MAM2007, Rhynchaenus pallicornis (Apple Flea Weevil) [this insect is widely distributed, larvae are leaf-miners; syn. Orchestes pallicornis] MAM2007 Crw2004, Stenoscelis brevis [polyphagous, larvae are found under bark; this insect is widely distributed] MAM2007; Scolytidae: Scolytus rugulosus (Shothole Borer) [this Eurasian insect is widely distributed in North America] MAM2007

Diptera (Flies)
Agromyzidae: Phytobia pruni [larvae bore through stems; found in New York] SS1986; Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura crataegibedeguar [larvae produce tufted galls on leaves] AOS1905, Lasioptera excavata [larvae are leaf-miners] Flt1907, Rhizomyia absobrina [larvae form leaf galls] Flt1907; Tephritidae: Rhagoletis pomonella (Apple Maggot) [larvae feed on fruit] MM1980

Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Miridae: Blepharidopterus provancheri Kn1941, Heterocordylus malinus Kn1941 Wat1928, Lygidea mendax (Apple Red Bug) Kn1941, Lygocoris univittatus Kn1941, Orthotylus serus WHM1983, Phytocoris canadensis WHM1983, Phytocoris salicis WHM1983, Plagiognathus dispar Kn1941, Taedia pallidula Kn1941, Taedia scrupea Kn1941; Pentatomidae: Brochymena quadripustulata (Four-Humped Stink Bug) [polyphagous] Rid2009; Tingidae: Corythucha cydoniae (Hawthorn Lace Bug) OD1916 Crw2004

Homoptera (Sucking Insects)
Aphididae: Aphis pomi (Green Apple Aphid) [introduced into N. America from Europe; feeds on young growth] HF1931 MM1980 Pp1965 Crw2004, Carolinaia crataegi HF1931, Dysaphis apiifolia (Hawthorn-Parsley Aphid) [forms galls on the leaves of hawthorns, migrating during the summer to the leaf bases of herbaceous plants in the Apiaceae; this aphid occurs in Illinois] BE2013, Eriosoma crataegi (Woolly Hawthorn Aphid) [found on twigs & young shoots of hawthorns during the spring, migrating to the bark of elms during the summer] HF1931 BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965 Crw2004, Eriosoma lanigerum (Woolly Apple Aphid) [found on woody roots, trunks, & branches, causing deformation & cancer-like swellings of the bark] MM1980 BE2013 Crw2004, Hyalomyzus collinsoniae [found on hawthorns, migrating during the summer to some herbaceous plants in the Lamiaceae] BE2013, Hyalomyzus eriobotryae [found on young growth of hawthorns, migrating during the summer to some herbaceous plants in the Lamiaceae] BE2013 Pp1965, Hyalomyzus jussiaeae [found on hawthorns, migrating to Ludwigia spp. during the summer; this aphid is distributed mostly in SE USA, although it has been found as far north as Maryland & Washington, D.C.] BE2013, Hyalomyzus sensoriatus [found on hawthorns, migrating during the summer to some plant species in the Hypericaceae and possibly Lamiaceae; observed in NE USA & SE Canada] BE2013, Muscaphis canadensis [rolls leaves; found in E USA & Canada] BE2013, Nearctaphis bakeri (Short-beaked Clover Aphid) [found on young leaves & flower buds of hawthorns & other shrubs in the Rosaceae, migrating during the summer to various herbaceous plants in the Fabaceae & other plant families; widespread in North America, including Illinois] BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965 Crw2004, Nearctaphis clydesmithi [found on Cockspur hawthorn & probably other hawthorns; distributed in E USA, including Wisconsin] BE2013, Nearctaphis crataegifoliae [twists & curls leaves of hawthorn, turning them purple; migrating during the summer to various herbaceous plants in the Fabaceae; distributed in central & E USA] HF1931 BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965, Prociphilus corrugatans [causes cupping & curling of hawthorn leaves, migrating to the roots of sedges & rushes during the summer; found in north-central & E USA, including Illinois] BE2013, Prociphilus crataegistrobi [curls hawthorn leaves during the spring, migrating to the roots of White Pine during the summer; this aphid may migrate back to the trunks of hawthorn during the winter, or it may persist on the roots of White Pine; found in North Carolina] BE2013, Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (Apple-Grass Aphid) [curls leaves of various trees & shrubs in the Rosaceae, migrating during the summer to the roots of grasses; this aphid is found in north-central & NE USA, including Illinois; syn. Rhopalosiphum insertum] BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965 Crw2004, Rhopalosiphum padi (Bird Cherry & Oat Aphid) [possible misidentification of aphid species]
HF1931, Rhopalosiphum rufulum [found in Canada from Manitoba to New Brunswick] BE2013 RB1965, Tinocallis ulmifolii [polyphagous] HF1931, Utamphorophora crataegi  (Four-spotted Hawthorn Aphid) [found on twigs, young shoots, & leaves, causing leaf-curl; this aphid has been observed in SE Canada, Manitoba, Pennsylvania, & Illinois] BE2013 Pp1965 RB1965 Crw2004; Cercopidae: Clastoptera obtusa (Alder Spittlebug) [fed on by adults only] Hm1982; Cicadellidae: Balcanocerus crataegi Dlg1948, Balcanocerus provancheri Dlg1948 Msh2006, Eratoneura minor [preferred host plants] DD2010, Eratoneura rostrata DD2010, Eratoneura spinifera DD2010, Erythridula bitincta [preferred host plants] DD2010, Erythridula electa DD2010, Erythridula funesta [preferred host plants] DD2010, Erythridula furcillata [preferred host plants] DD2010, Erythridula magnacalx DD2010, Erythridula repleta [preferred host plants] DD2010, Erythridula rubens [preferred host plants] DD2010, Erythridula spatulata [preferred host plants] DD2010, Erythroneura maculata Dlg1948, Typhlocyba pomaria (White Apple Leafhopper [found on leaves; syn. Zonocyba pomaria] Crw2004; Disaspididae: Aulacaspis rosae (Rose Scale) [found near the crown of the host plant & other areas, preferring Rosa spp. & Rubus spp.; this insect is widely distributed in NE USA, north-central USA, & SE Canada] SN2014, Chionaspis furfura (Scurfy Bark Scale) [found on branches & trunks, less often on young shoots, fruit, & leaves; plant species in the Rosaceae are preferred hosts; this insect is widely distributed in the USA & S Canada] SN2014Diaspidiotus ancylis (Putnam Scale) [found on leaves, sometimes bark, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in the USA] SN2014, Diaspidiotus forbesi (Forbe's Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous; this insect occurs in north-central USA & elsewhere] SN2014, Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (False San Jose Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in N USA & S Canada, also in Eurasia, where it is native] SN2014, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San Jose Scale) [usually found on bark, polyphagous, although preferring woody species in the Rosaceae; this insect is widely distributed; syn. Comstockaspis perniciosa, syn. Quadraspidiotus perniciosus] SN2014, Diaspidiotus uvae (Grape Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous, although Vitis spp. are preferred hosts; this insect occurs in E USA] SN2014, Epidiaspis leperii (Italian Pear Scale) [found on young branches & twigs; this insect occurs in NE USA & Missouri] SN2014, Lepidosaphes ulmi (Oystershell Scale) [found on bark, polyphagous; this insect is widely distributed in the USA, S Canada, & Eurasia] SN2014; Membracidae: Ceresa bubalus (Buffalo Treehopper) [polyphagous] Den1952, Glossonotus crataegi Den1952 Fnk1917 Msh2006, Hadrophallus borealis [polyphagous] Den1952, Heliria scalaris Den1952, Telamona monticola Den1952, Telamona tiliae [polyphagous] Den1952; Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus wistariae (Taxus Mealybug) [polyphagous, although Taxus spp. are preferred hosts; widely distributed in NE & north-central USA] SN2014, Phenacoccus dearnessi (Hawthorn Mealybug) [widely distributed; feeds on twigs & young shoots; found mostly on trees in the Rosaceae] SN2014 Crw2004

Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, & Sawflies)
Tenthredinidae: Caliroa cerasi (Pear Sawfly) [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Dimorphopteryx abnormis [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Priophorus pallipes [larvae feed on foliage] Sm2006, Profenusa canadensis (Hawthorn Leafminer) Ndm1928 Sm2006 Crw2004; Xiphydriidae: Xiphydria tibialis [larvae bore into small branches, polyphagous] Sm2006

Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, & Moths)
Agonoxenidae: Blastodacna bicristatella [larvae feed on fruits] Mic2010; Carposinidae: Carposina fernaldana (Currant Fruitworm) [larvae feed on fruits] Cv2005; Choreutidae: Choreutis pariana (Apple & Thorn Skeletonizer) [introduced into N. America from Europe] Msh2006; Coleophoridae: Coleophora cerasivorella (Cigar Casebearer) Ndm1928; Gelechiidae: Recurvaria nanella (Lesser Bud Moth) Ndm1928; Geometridae: Lomographa glomeraria (Gray Spring Moth) [possible host plants] Cv2005, Lomographa semiclarata (Blue Spring Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005, Lomographa vestaliata (White Spring Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005 Wg2005, Macaria coortaria (Four-Spotted Macaria) [syn. Itame coortaria] Cv2005, Probole alienaria (Alien Probole) Msh2006 Wg2005, Triphosa haesitata (Tissue Moth) [polyphagous] Cv2005; Gracillariidae: Parornix geminatella (Unspotted Tentiform Leafminer) Ndm1928, Parornix inusitatumella [leaf-miner] Ndm1928, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Spotted Tentiform Leafminer) Ndm1928, Phyllonorycter crataegella (Apple Blotch Leafminer) Ndm1928 Crw2004; Heliozelidae: Coptodisca splendoriferella (Resplendent Shieldbearer) Ndm1928; Lasiocampidae: Malacosoma americanum (Eastern Tent Caterpillar) Wg2005; Lycaenidae: Feniseca tarquinius (Harvester) [carnivorous caterpillars eat woolly aphids on hawthorn] OK1984, Satyrium liparops strigosum (Striped Hairstreak) [polyphagous] BS2001 OK1984, Strymon melinus (Gray Hairstreak) [polyphagous, larvae feed on flowers & fruits] BS2001; Lymantriidae: Lymantria dispar (Gypsy Moth) [intro. into N. America from abroad, polyphagous] Cv2005; Noctuidae: Acronicta clarescens (Clear Dagger Moth) Wg2005, Acronicta radcliffei (Radcliffe's Dagger Moth) Cv2005 Wg2005, Acronicta superans (Splendid Dagger Moth) Wg2005, Balsa tristigella (Three-Lined Balsa) Cv2005, Catocala blandula (Charming Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala clintoni (Clinton's Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala crataegi (Hawthorn Underwing)
Cv2005 Wg2005, Catocala grynea (Woody Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala mira (Wonderful Underwing) Cv2005, Catocala titania (Titan Underwing) [found in south & central IL] Cv2005, Catocala ultronia (Ultronia Underwing) Wg2005, Cerma cerintha (Tufted Bird-Dropping Moth) Cv2005 Wg2005; Notodontidae: Schizura unicornis (Unicorn Caterpillar) [polyphagous] Wg2005; Nymphalidae: Limenitis archippus (Viceroy) Bar1999, Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Red-Spotted Purple) Bar1999; Sphingidae: Paonias myops (Small-Eyed Sphinx) Cv2005 Wg2005; Tischeriidae: Coptotriche crataegifoliae [larvae are leaf-miners] Mic2010, Tischeria malifoliella (Apple Trumpet Leafminer) Ndm1928; Tortricidae: Ancylis nubeculana (Little Cloud Ancylis) [larvae feed within folded leaves] Mlr1987, Epinotia vertumnana Mlr1987, Epinotia zandana Mlr1987, Grapholita packardi (Cherry Fruitworm) [possible complex of closely related moth species] Mlr1987, Grapholita prunivora (Lesser Appleworm) [larvae feed on fruits] Mlr1987, Hedya chionosema (White-spotted Hedya) [larvae feed on buds & leaves] Mlr1987, Pseudexentera mali (Pale Apple Leafroller Moth) [larvae feed in buds, folded leaves, and young fruits] Mlr1987, Pseudexentera maracana Mlr1987; Yponomeutidae: Yponomeuta padella  (Orchard Ermine) [larvae form webs over the leaves] Ndm1928, Swammerdamia caesiella Mic2010
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